California Agriculture
California Agriculture
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California Agriculture

Archive

November-December 1990
Volume 44, Number 6

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

The 1990 Farm Bill sets new courses for agriculture
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  
Resin midges in Monterey pine Christmas trees
by T. D. Paine, E. J. Perry, C. S. Koehler
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Though these midges do cause visible damage to Christmas trees, it is not enough to justify chemical control measures.
Pine resin midges feed on fresh resin in wounds on Christmas trees. Though some growers perceive this as a problem, insecticide treatments are unwarranted — partly because they do not provide effective control, but mostly because consumers do not consider resin midge damage when they choose Christmas trees.
Citrus skirt pruning – a management technique for Phytophthora brown rot
by Phil A. Phillips, Neil V. O'Connell, John A. Menge
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A common practice for other citrus pests, skirt pruning now appears to help control Phytophthora brown rot, too.
Trials in Ventura and Tulare counties now establish that skirt-pruning can significantly reduce Phytophthora brown rot damage to lemon fruit without harming fruit yields.
Supplemental chemical control for omnivorous looper on avocados
by J. Blair Bailey, Kirk N. Olsen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
When this insect pest occasionally escapes the control of naturally occurring parasites, chemical control may be appropriate.
Researchers tested four chemicals for omnivorous looper control in avocado orchards. Of the three that proved effective, only two are currently registered for use on bearing avocados in California.
Chemical control of amorbia, an insect pest of avocado and citrus
by J. Blair Bailey, Kirk N. Olsen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Researchers are looking for selective insecticides to augment the biological control of this pest.
Several insecticides were evaluated for control of amorbia, a “worm” pest of avocados and citrus in California. Lannate was the only effective chemical that is currently registered for bearing avocados in California.
Two rumen-protected amino acids in dairy cows' feed change the protein content of milk
by Jo May Chow, Edward J. DePeters, R. Lee Baldwin
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A fourfold increase in California cheese production over 10 years has prompted dairy operators to look for different qualities in milk.
Including fat in the diet of dairy cows often results in a decrease in the concentrations of total protein and casein in milk. In this study, the addition of rumen-protected methionine and lysine to such a diet increased the total protein and casein contents of milk produced by lactating cows.
A new race of downy mildew threatens spinach
by James C. Correll, Steven T. Koike, Lynn P. Brandenberger, Mark C. Black, Teddy E. Morelock
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A new strain of downy mildew is infecting otherwise disease-resistant spinach varieties.
A new race of downy mildew is threatening spinach in several California and Texas growing areas. Two fungicides, metalaxyl and Aliett, may help control the disease.
Farm employment and wage patterns in the mid-1980s
by Philip L. Martin, Greg Miller
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Most of the direct hiring of farm workers is on large farms; smaller operations are making greater use of independent farm labor contractors.
Wages paid to hired workers make up the single largest production expense for California crop and livestock farmers, and they rose 11% between 1984 and 1988. Crop and livestock employment is becoming concentrated on fewer, larger farms, and labor contractor employment is becoming fragmented among smaller contractors.
Predatory mites help control thrips on floriculture crops
by Nawal A. Hessein, Michael P. Parrella
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Two mite species were tested successfully in greenhouse trials against western flower thrips.
Western flower thrips is an increasingly important pest of field and greenhouse crops. Biological control with predaceous mites may be a viable option when dealing with this difficult pest.
Cereal forage for dairy cattle
by Edward J. DePeters, Juan F. Medrano, Donald L. Bath, Donald P. Harper
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Cheaper than alfalfa, winter grain forage harvested at the right stage can be added to dairy cattle feed without harming milk production.
Replacing part of a dairy cow's alfalfa forage with cereal silage in early lactation did not alter milk production, but the cow's dry matter intake was reduced. The more mature the cereal was when harvested as hay, the less digestible it became. Cereal silage can be used successfully in lactation rations if harvested at an early maturity.
Leaching fraction, soil salinity, and drainage efficiency
by M. E. Grismer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
An efficient subsurface drain can keep salts from building up in irrigated soils, but measuring a drain's efficiency can be a complex process.
Measuring the efficiency of a subsurface irrigation drainage system is complicated by a number of factors, including the irrigation water's salinity, the soil's inherent salinity, and the degree to which saline drainwater migrates laterally in a shallow water table.
Resistant germplasm controls Fusarium wilt in cantaloupes
by F. W. Zink, W. D. Gubler
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Researchers crossed cantaloupe germplasm from Texas and France with California cantaloupes to produce Fusarium-resistant breeding lines.
Fusarium wilt is widespread, and has caused severe losses to cantaloupe fields in the San Joaquin Valley. Researchers have bred resistant germplasm into orange-fleshed western shipping-type cantaloupes, and resistant F, hybrids are now available for commercial growers.
Unions: their effect on California farm wages
by Philip L. Martin, J. R. Abele
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Farmworker unions had a significant effect on member wages in the 197Os, but made fewer strides in the 1980s.
Six unions today cover 12,400 farmworker jobs on 258 California farms, a sharp decrease from the numbers of the early 1980s. Though they are the workers' certified bargaining representatives on 725 farms, unions are finding it harder to turn their election victories into contracts that will raise member wages.
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http://calag.ucanr.edu/archive/index.cfm?issue=44_6

November-December 1990
Volume 44, Number 6

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

The 1990 Farm Bill sets new courses for agriculture
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  
Resin midges in Monterey pine Christmas trees
by T. D. Paine, E. J. Perry, C. S. Koehler
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Though these midges do cause visible damage to Christmas trees, it is not enough to justify chemical control measures.
Pine resin midges feed on fresh resin in wounds on Christmas trees. Though some growers perceive this as a problem, insecticide treatments are unwarranted — partly because they do not provide effective control, but mostly because consumers do not consider resin midge damage when they choose Christmas trees.
Citrus skirt pruning – a management technique for Phytophthora brown rot
by Phil A. Phillips, Neil V. O'Connell, John A. Menge
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A common practice for other citrus pests, skirt pruning now appears to help control Phytophthora brown rot, too.
Trials in Ventura and Tulare counties now establish that skirt-pruning can significantly reduce Phytophthora brown rot damage to lemon fruit without harming fruit yields.
Supplemental chemical control for omnivorous looper on avocados
by J. Blair Bailey, Kirk N. Olsen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
When this insect pest occasionally escapes the control of naturally occurring parasites, chemical control may be appropriate.
Researchers tested four chemicals for omnivorous looper control in avocado orchards. Of the three that proved effective, only two are currently registered for use on bearing avocados in California.
Chemical control of amorbia, an insect pest of avocado and citrus
by J. Blair Bailey, Kirk N. Olsen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Researchers are looking for selective insecticides to augment the biological control of this pest.
Several insecticides were evaluated for control of amorbia, a “worm” pest of avocados and citrus in California. Lannate was the only effective chemical that is currently registered for bearing avocados in California.
Two rumen-protected amino acids in dairy cows' feed change the protein content of milk
by Jo May Chow, Edward J. DePeters, R. Lee Baldwin
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A fourfold increase in California cheese production over 10 years has prompted dairy operators to look for different qualities in milk.
Including fat in the diet of dairy cows often results in a decrease in the concentrations of total protein and casein in milk. In this study, the addition of rumen-protected methionine and lysine to such a diet increased the total protein and casein contents of milk produced by lactating cows.
A new race of downy mildew threatens spinach
by James C. Correll, Steven T. Koike, Lynn P. Brandenberger, Mark C. Black, Teddy E. Morelock
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A new strain of downy mildew is infecting otherwise disease-resistant spinach varieties.
A new race of downy mildew is threatening spinach in several California and Texas growing areas. Two fungicides, metalaxyl and Aliett, may help control the disease.
Farm employment and wage patterns in the mid-1980s
by Philip L. Martin, Greg Miller
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Most of the direct hiring of farm workers is on large farms; smaller operations are making greater use of independent farm labor contractors.
Wages paid to hired workers make up the single largest production expense for California crop and livestock farmers, and they rose 11% between 1984 and 1988. Crop and livestock employment is becoming concentrated on fewer, larger farms, and labor contractor employment is becoming fragmented among smaller contractors.
Predatory mites help control thrips on floriculture crops
by Nawal A. Hessein, Michael P. Parrella
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Two mite species were tested successfully in greenhouse trials against western flower thrips.
Western flower thrips is an increasingly important pest of field and greenhouse crops. Biological control with predaceous mites may be a viable option when dealing with this difficult pest.
Cereal forage for dairy cattle
by Edward J. DePeters, Juan F. Medrano, Donald L. Bath, Donald P. Harper
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Cheaper than alfalfa, winter grain forage harvested at the right stage can be added to dairy cattle feed without harming milk production.
Replacing part of a dairy cow's alfalfa forage with cereal silage in early lactation did not alter milk production, but the cow's dry matter intake was reduced. The more mature the cereal was when harvested as hay, the less digestible it became. Cereal silage can be used successfully in lactation rations if harvested at an early maturity.
Leaching fraction, soil salinity, and drainage efficiency
by M. E. Grismer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
An efficient subsurface drain can keep salts from building up in irrigated soils, but measuring a drain's efficiency can be a complex process.
Measuring the efficiency of a subsurface irrigation drainage system is complicated by a number of factors, including the irrigation water's salinity, the soil's inherent salinity, and the degree to which saline drainwater migrates laterally in a shallow water table.
Resistant germplasm controls Fusarium wilt in cantaloupes
by F. W. Zink, W. D. Gubler
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Researchers crossed cantaloupe germplasm from Texas and France with California cantaloupes to produce Fusarium-resistant breeding lines.
Fusarium wilt is widespread, and has caused severe losses to cantaloupe fields in the San Joaquin Valley. Researchers have bred resistant germplasm into orange-fleshed western shipping-type cantaloupes, and resistant F, hybrids are now available for commercial growers.
Unions: their effect on California farm wages
by Philip L. Martin, J. R. Abele
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Farmworker unions had a significant effect on member wages in the 197Os, but made fewer strides in the 1980s.
Six unions today cover 12,400 farmworker jobs on 258 California farms, a sharp decrease from the numbers of the early 1980s. Though they are the workers' certified bargaining representatives on 725 farms, unions are finding it harder to turn their election victories into contracts that will raise member wages.

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