California Agriculture
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California Agriculture

Archive

September-October 1990
Volume 44, Number 5

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Integrated pest management in California
by Frank G. Zalom, Mary Louise Flint
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Though the Statewide UC IPM Program is only 10 years old, University researchers have been putting IPM principles to work since the 1950s. The articles in this special section highlight a few of the Program's achievements over the past decade. Cover: At sunrise, a walnut grower checks a trap for codling moths. (Cover photo and other IPM photos by Jack Kelly Clark unless otherwise noted.)
Agricultural pests include insects, nematodes, disease-causing organisms, mites, weeds, and vertebrates. By monitoring their populations and life stages, growers can act to control pests at the most effective times, before they can substantially damage crops.
IPM: Managing water for weed control in rice
by J. F. Williams, S. R. Roberts, J. E. Hill, S. C. Scardaci, G. Tibbits
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Slightly deeper flooding helps rice growers control weeds with less herbicide.
A strategy of slightly deeper water, no draining, and lower grass herbicide rates can help rice growers maintain weed control and sustain high yields while lowering the economic and runoff costs of herbicides.
IPM Integrated crop management increases citrus growth and yields
by J. Menge, J. Morse, D. Hare, C. Coggins, J. Pehrson, J. Meyer, T. Embleton, S. Van Gundy, A. Dodds, M. L. Arpaia, E. Takele, C. Adams, A. Strawn, E. Pond, D. Atkin
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The right blend of irrigation, fertilization, and pest control gives growers optimum yields and profits.
The McKellar project is a large scale, multidisciplinary effort involving irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, fungicides, nematicides, miticides, and gibberellin treatments. The project, now in its seventh and final year, wlll show which treatments are most efficient and lucrative for growers.
IPM: Monitoring tomato fruitworm eggs in processing tomatoes
by Frank G. Zalom, Craig V. Weakley, Michael P. Hoffmann, L. T. Wilson, James I. Grieshop, Gene Miyao
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Research has dramatically reduced the time it takes to check a field for tomato fruitworm eggs.
Research on egg distribution and treatment levels for the tomato fruitworm led to a set of monitoring guidelines, which were demonstrated in parts of the Sacramento Valley. Evaluation of this program documents grower adoption and an impact on insecticide use.
IPM: Leaf removal for pest management in wine grapes
by William W. Barnett, W. Douglas Gubler, James J. Marois, James J. Stapleton
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Removing leaves from around young grape clusters can help prevent rot.
Leaf removal can effectively manage Botrytis bunch rot and the “summer bunch rot complex” of wine grapes in the San Joaquin Valley and coastal growing areas. The practice may help manage such insect pests as leaf hoppers. Producers have adopted leaf removal as a routine cultural practice, especially where high-value, premium varietals are grown.
IPM: CALEW Cotton: an integrated expert system for cotton production and management
by Peter B. Goodell, Richard E. Plant, Thomas A. Kerby, Joyce F. Strand, L. Ted Wilson, Lowell Zelinski, Julie A. Young, Andrew Corbett, R. D. Horrocks, Ronald N. Vargas
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
This computer program helps growers predict the results of management decisions, and so improve their crops' chances.
CALEX/Cotton is a user-friendly computer program that simulates human problem-solving behavior. Growers can use this system to help manage crop production or predict the effects of any one decision on subsequent events. In 7990, more than 700 cotton producers have taken advantage of the CALEW Cotton computer program.
IPM: California's almond IPM program
by Karen Klonsky, Frank Zalom, Bill Barnett
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Almond pest control is a major focus of UC IPM work. Growers can now get better results with less pesticide.
Almond pest control was an early focus for UC IPM researchers. That work continues today. IPM practices for almond insect management are now used by most growers, and have reduced California's annual pesticide bill by an estimated $4.1 million.
IPM Research results: Statewide IPM's first 10 years
by James I. Grieshop, Robert A. Pence
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
New pest control practices are available on many fronts, thanks to UC IPM research.
An independent review of research funded by UC IPM in its first ten years provides evidence of a successful program with practical impact on pest management practices. The review also suggests that some research projects have led to reductions in pesticide use.
Method of irrigation affects sour skin rot of onion
by Beth L. Teviotdale, R. Michael Davis, John P. Guerard, Dennis H. Harper
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Early season sprinkler irrigation encourages disease development.
Sour skin rot of onion was controlled successfully by substituting furrow irrigation for overhead sprinkler irrigation. Fresh weight of bulbs and percentage soluble solids were not affected by the irrigation method or the volume of water delivered.
Furrow irrigation and TOU electric rates
by Blaine R. Hanson, Stuart Spoto, Kent Kaita, Todd W. Bruce
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Growers can save money by irrigating to avoid peak hours of electrical use.
Time-of-use (TOU) electric rates offer growers an opportunity to reduce the cost of pumping irrigation water. Peak-hour electricity rates can run from two to four times the off-peak rates. Times designated as off- and on-peak vary depending on the utility's rate schedule.
Grazing helps maintain brush growth on cleared land
by Walter H. Johnson, E. Lee Fitzhugh
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Grazing deer and cattle help keep edible forage abundant on cleared rangeland.
A 20-year photographic record shows that grazing by deer and cattle can maintain forage after brush clearing.
Trapping tomato fruitworm in the Central Valley
by Michael P. Hoffmann, Lloyd T. Wilson, Frank G. Zalom, Richard Coviello, Michael Murray, Peter B. Goodell, Donald Rough
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
This pest's seasonal distribution is consistent throughout the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys.
Pheromone traps in the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys indicate that seasonal patterns of the tomato fruitworm are similar across large areas. Catches were greatest late in the season. A non-pest species (false corn earworm), also captured at all locations, is easily confused with the pest.
Wine grape establishment and production in southern California
by Etaferahu Takele
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Operation costs exceed returns, when you count opportunity costs and other foregone income.
An economic study of vineyard costs in the major wine grape production area of southern California indicates that establishment and production costs exceed returns.
Subclover-seeded, fertilized pasture for early weaned lambs
by Milton B. Jones, Montague W. Demment, Martin R. Dally, Charles E. Vaughn
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Highly productive, well-protected pastures enhance weight gains in lambs.
A 6-year grazing study on sub-clover pasture at the UC Hopland Field Station indicated that lambs weaned at 40 Ib made excellent gains. Phosphorus and sulfur fertilization enhanced the gains enough to be profitable. By concentrating lambs on highly productive, well-protected pastures, researchers not only used inputs more efficiently, they also prevented many of the predator losses encountered in nearby, less-protected pastures.

News and Opinion

IPM: reshaping the approach to pest management
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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September-October 1990
Volume 44, Number 5

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Integrated pest management in California
by Frank G. Zalom, Mary Louise Flint
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Though the Statewide UC IPM Program is only 10 years old, University researchers have been putting IPM principles to work since the 1950s. The articles in this special section highlight a few of the Program's achievements over the past decade. Cover: At sunrise, a walnut grower checks a trap for codling moths. (Cover photo and other IPM photos by Jack Kelly Clark unless otherwise noted.)
Agricultural pests include insects, nematodes, disease-causing organisms, mites, weeds, and vertebrates. By monitoring their populations and life stages, growers can act to control pests at the most effective times, before they can substantially damage crops.
IPM: Managing water for weed control in rice
by J. F. Williams, S. R. Roberts, J. E. Hill, S. C. Scardaci, G. Tibbits
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Slightly deeper flooding helps rice growers control weeds with less herbicide.
A strategy of slightly deeper water, no draining, and lower grass herbicide rates can help rice growers maintain weed control and sustain high yields while lowering the economic and runoff costs of herbicides.
IPM Integrated crop management increases citrus growth and yields
by J. Menge, J. Morse, D. Hare, C. Coggins, J. Pehrson, J. Meyer, T. Embleton, S. Van Gundy, A. Dodds, M. L. Arpaia, E. Takele, C. Adams, A. Strawn, E. Pond, D. Atkin
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The right blend of irrigation, fertilization, and pest control gives growers optimum yields and profits.
The McKellar project is a large scale, multidisciplinary effort involving irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, fungicides, nematicides, miticides, and gibberellin treatments. The project, now in its seventh and final year, wlll show which treatments are most efficient and lucrative for growers.
IPM: Monitoring tomato fruitworm eggs in processing tomatoes
by Frank G. Zalom, Craig V. Weakley, Michael P. Hoffmann, L. T. Wilson, James I. Grieshop, Gene Miyao
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Research has dramatically reduced the time it takes to check a field for tomato fruitworm eggs.
Research on egg distribution and treatment levels for the tomato fruitworm led to a set of monitoring guidelines, which were demonstrated in parts of the Sacramento Valley. Evaluation of this program documents grower adoption and an impact on insecticide use.
IPM: Leaf removal for pest management in wine grapes
by William W. Barnett, W. Douglas Gubler, James J. Marois, James J. Stapleton
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Removing leaves from around young grape clusters can help prevent rot.
Leaf removal can effectively manage Botrytis bunch rot and the “summer bunch rot complex” of wine grapes in the San Joaquin Valley and coastal growing areas. The practice may help manage such insect pests as leaf hoppers. Producers have adopted leaf removal as a routine cultural practice, especially where high-value, premium varietals are grown.
IPM: CALEW Cotton: an integrated expert system for cotton production and management
by Peter B. Goodell, Richard E. Plant, Thomas A. Kerby, Joyce F. Strand, L. Ted Wilson, Lowell Zelinski, Julie A. Young, Andrew Corbett, R. D. Horrocks, Ronald N. Vargas
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
This computer program helps growers predict the results of management decisions, and so improve their crops' chances.
CALEX/Cotton is a user-friendly computer program that simulates human problem-solving behavior. Growers can use this system to help manage crop production or predict the effects of any one decision on subsequent events. In 7990, more than 700 cotton producers have taken advantage of the CALEW Cotton computer program.
IPM: California's almond IPM program
by Karen Klonsky, Frank Zalom, Bill Barnett
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Almond pest control is a major focus of UC IPM work. Growers can now get better results with less pesticide.
Almond pest control was an early focus for UC IPM researchers. That work continues today. IPM practices for almond insect management are now used by most growers, and have reduced California's annual pesticide bill by an estimated $4.1 million.
IPM Research results: Statewide IPM's first 10 years
by James I. Grieshop, Robert A. Pence
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
New pest control practices are available on many fronts, thanks to UC IPM research.
An independent review of research funded by UC IPM in its first ten years provides evidence of a successful program with practical impact on pest management practices. The review also suggests that some research projects have led to reductions in pesticide use.
Method of irrigation affects sour skin rot of onion
by Beth L. Teviotdale, R. Michael Davis, John P. Guerard, Dennis H. Harper
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Early season sprinkler irrigation encourages disease development.
Sour skin rot of onion was controlled successfully by substituting furrow irrigation for overhead sprinkler irrigation. Fresh weight of bulbs and percentage soluble solids were not affected by the irrigation method or the volume of water delivered.
Furrow irrigation and TOU electric rates
by Blaine R. Hanson, Stuart Spoto, Kent Kaita, Todd W. Bruce
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Growers can save money by irrigating to avoid peak hours of electrical use.
Time-of-use (TOU) electric rates offer growers an opportunity to reduce the cost of pumping irrigation water. Peak-hour electricity rates can run from two to four times the off-peak rates. Times designated as off- and on-peak vary depending on the utility's rate schedule.
Grazing helps maintain brush growth on cleared land
by Walter H. Johnson, E. Lee Fitzhugh
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Grazing deer and cattle help keep edible forage abundant on cleared rangeland.
A 20-year photographic record shows that grazing by deer and cattle can maintain forage after brush clearing.
Trapping tomato fruitworm in the Central Valley
by Michael P. Hoffmann, Lloyd T. Wilson, Frank G. Zalom, Richard Coviello, Michael Murray, Peter B. Goodell, Donald Rough
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
This pest's seasonal distribution is consistent throughout the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys.
Pheromone traps in the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys indicate that seasonal patterns of the tomato fruitworm are similar across large areas. Catches were greatest late in the season. A non-pest species (false corn earworm), also captured at all locations, is easily confused with the pest.
Wine grape establishment and production in southern California
by Etaferahu Takele
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Operation costs exceed returns, when you count opportunity costs and other foregone income.
An economic study of vineyard costs in the major wine grape production area of southern California indicates that establishment and production costs exceed returns.
Subclover-seeded, fertilized pasture for early weaned lambs
by Milton B. Jones, Montague W. Demment, Martin R. Dally, Charles E. Vaughn
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Highly productive, well-protected pastures enhance weight gains in lambs.
A 6-year grazing study on sub-clover pasture at the UC Hopland Field Station indicated that lambs weaned at 40 Ib made excellent gains. Phosphorus and sulfur fertilization enhanced the gains enough to be profitable. By concentrating lambs on highly productive, well-protected pastures, researchers not only used inputs more efficiently, they also prevented many of the predator losses encountered in nearby, less-protected pastures.

News and Opinion

IPM: reshaping the approach to pest management
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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