California Agriculture
California Agriculture
California Agriculture
University of California
California Agriculture

Archive

July-August 1990
Volume 44, Number 4

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Strawberry production systems during conversion to organic management
by Stephen R. Gliessman, Sean L. Swezey, Jan Allison, Jim Cochran, John Farrell, Rob Kluson, Francisco Rosado-May, Matthew Werner
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Growers converting to less traditional farming methods face a whole new set of problems.
Converting to a certified organic strawberry production system takes time. Growers must monitor the long-term consequences of new production factors and evaluate new cultural techniques.
Economics of agricultural drainage policies
by Dennis Wichelns, Marca Weinberg
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
By addressing the variation in individual farms' drainage conditions, drainwater policies can help achieve regional drainage goals more cheaply.
Policies to reduce agricultural drainwater in the San Joaquin Valley are complicated by different existing drainage conditions on farms. Drainwater reduction policies that address such variations will be more efficient in achieving regional drainage goals.
Progress report: Vice President's task force on pest control alternatives: Overview
by James M. Lyons, Frank G. Zalom
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The laws that govern the use of agricultural chemicals are changing, and pest management techniques must change with them. Last November, Vice President Farrell appointed a group of scholars to evaluate how UC should focus its research efforts in order to maintain the quality of its pest management programs, given the new laws' potential restrictions. The following three reports address these issues.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Pest management practices in California's food, fiber, and forest production system are in transition. Though dominated by synthetic organic pesticides in the two decades immediately following World War II, pest control programs recommended by University of California researchers in recent years have incorporated a variety of strategies, resulting in more ecologically balanced, “integrated” approaches to managing pests in many of California's major crops. Despite the reductions in pesticide use that have resulted from these integrated systems, there is increased public and governmental concern about the effects of extensive pesticide use on the environment, the health of farmworkers, and the pests' development of pesticide resistance. Further, the public now perceives that pesticides constitute an involuntary and unacceptable threat to food safety. This last factor has led to a number of legislative and public initiatives that call for alternative approaches to pest control in crop and animal production.
Potential pesticide use cancellations in California
by Michael W. Stimmann, Mary P. Ferguson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Proposition 65, FIFRA 1988, and the proposed EPA 1990 could eventually eliminate the use of a number of agricultural chemicals.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Increasingly, pesticide registrations are being rescinded by state and federal regulatory actions and by private sector decisions to withdraw pesticide products. Public concern, regulatory complexity, and scientific understanding of the hazards of pesticides are likely to increase in the near future. California faces the potential loss of a large part of the currently employed chemical pest control technology. An understanding of these pesticide losses will help California's agricultural community identify and adopt effective and acceptable alternative pest management techniques and help the University of California make informed decisions on directing its research and extension resources.
Alternatives to targeted pesticides: the DANR database
by Frank G. Zalom, Joyce F. Strand
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Finding alternatives for a canceled pesticide is complex; often, rather than a single substitute for each chemical, researchers must find a new management technique for each pest-crop combination.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Late in 1989, the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (DANR) initiated an inventory of alternatives to pesticides and specific crop uses that would be lost under FIFRA 1988 and EPA 1990. A committee of University of California pest management specialists and agricultural economists developed a survey asking respondents to provide information on the number and frequency of applications, application method, and target pest for each crop and targeted pesticide for which they felt they had sufficient expertise.
The research imperatives: knowledge to reduce the use of broadly toxic pesticides
by Mary Louise Flint
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Focusing UC's agricultural research agenda means everything from looking again at crop rotation to opening new areas of molecular biology.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: The University of California has been a leader in the development of methods to reduce reliance on pesticides. California was the site of the first major successes of biological control for insect pests during the latter part of the 19th century, and the term integrated control (the forerunner of integrated pest management) was coined by UC entomologists in the late 1950s.
The smokybrown cockroach: potential new pest in California
by A. G. Appel, Michael K. Rust, Donald A. Reierson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
At some life stages, this new pest can be confused with the oriental cockroach.
Infestations of this introduced pest have spread to at least 17 locations in three California counties. Localized control may be possible by surveying for infestations, inspecting cargo vehicles, applying chemicals, and trapping.
Biology and control of the ten lined June beetle in almonds
by Robert A. Van Steenwyk, Donald Rough, Paul S. Verdegaal
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Two insecticide treatments — one at egg hatch and another at the third instar— provide effective control of this pest. (Photo by Jack Kelly Clark)
The tenlined June beetle has one generation every two years. Most larvae are in the top 14 inches of soil, and female adults apparently do not fly. Diazinon granules applied to the soil suppress larval populations.
Melaleuca alternifolia: new crop for California?
by Roy M. Sachs, Choong I. Lee, Sue A. Cartwright, Michael S. Reid, Colin Smith
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Thetea tree yields a valuable oil; it shows promise as a profitable crop in the Central Valley.
Researchers say tea trees can we grown successfully and with profitable oil yields in California's Central Valley. Based on an analysis of seedlings from one seed source, the yield from a seedling plantation would be about half that of a clonal plantation derived from the best seedlings.
Spring and summer nitrogen applications to Vina walnuts
by William F. Richardson, Roland D. Meyer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The timing of nitrogen fertilization may affect walnut yields.
Walnut yield responses to nitrogen applied in spring or fall, or split between spring and fall varied in an experiment on deep alluvial Columbia soil. Leaf and twig nitrogen responded most to recently applied nitrogen. Matching the crop's rate of nitrogen removal with the nitrogen application rate and monitoring plant nutritional status with leaf analysis should contribute to economical, environmentally sound walnut orchard management.

News and Opinion

Agricultural pest control alternatives
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  

General Information

Correction: July-August 1990
by Editors
Full text HTML  | PDF  
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu

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July-August 1990
Volume 44, Number 4

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Strawberry production systems during conversion to organic management
by Stephen R. Gliessman, Sean L. Swezey, Jan Allison, Jim Cochran, John Farrell, Rob Kluson, Francisco Rosado-May, Matthew Werner
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Growers converting to less traditional farming methods face a whole new set of problems.
Converting to a certified organic strawberry production system takes time. Growers must monitor the long-term consequences of new production factors and evaluate new cultural techniques.
Economics of agricultural drainage policies
by Dennis Wichelns, Marca Weinberg
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
By addressing the variation in individual farms' drainage conditions, drainwater policies can help achieve regional drainage goals more cheaply.
Policies to reduce agricultural drainwater in the San Joaquin Valley are complicated by different existing drainage conditions on farms. Drainwater reduction policies that address such variations will be more efficient in achieving regional drainage goals.
Progress report: Vice President's task force on pest control alternatives: Overview
by James M. Lyons, Frank G. Zalom
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The laws that govern the use of agricultural chemicals are changing, and pest management techniques must change with them. Last November, Vice President Farrell appointed a group of scholars to evaluate how UC should focus its research efforts in order to maintain the quality of its pest management programs, given the new laws' potential restrictions. The following three reports address these issues.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Pest management practices in California's food, fiber, and forest production system are in transition. Though dominated by synthetic organic pesticides in the two decades immediately following World War II, pest control programs recommended by University of California researchers in recent years have incorporated a variety of strategies, resulting in more ecologically balanced, “integrated” approaches to managing pests in many of California's major crops. Despite the reductions in pesticide use that have resulted from these integrated systems, there is increased public and governmental concern about the effects of extensive pesticide use on the environment, the health of farmworkers, and the pests' development of pesticide resistance. Further, the public now perceives that pesticides constitute an involuntary and unacceptable threat to food safety. This last factor has led to a number of legislative and public initiatives that call for alternative approaches to pest control in crop and animal production.
Potential pesticide use cancellations in California
by Michael W. Stimmann, Mary P. Ferguson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Proposition 65, FIFRA 1988, and the proposed EPA 1990 could eventually eliminate the use of a number of agricultural chemicals.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Increasingly, pesticide registrations are being rescinded by state and federal regulatory actions and by private sector decisions to withdraw pesticide products. Public concern, regulatory complexity, and scientific understanding of the hazards of pesticides are likely to increase in the near future. California faces the potential loss of a large part of the currently employed chemical pest control technology. An understanding of these pesticide losses will help California's agricultural community identify and adopt effective and acceptable alternative pest management techniques and help the University of California make informed decisions on directing its research and extension resources.
Alternatives to targeted pesticides: the DANR database
by Frank G. Zalom, Joyce F. Strand
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Finding alternatives for a canceled pesticide is complex; often, rather than a single substitute for each chemical, researchers must find a new management technique for each pest-crop combination.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Late in 1989, the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (DANR) initiated an inventory of alternatives to pesticides and specific crop uses that would be lost under FIFRA 1988 and EPA 1990. A committee of University of California pest management specialists and agricultural economists developed a survey asking respondents to provide information on the number and frequency of applications, application method, and target pest for each crop and targeted pesticide for which they felt they had sufficient expertise.
The research imperatives: knowledge to reduce the use of broadly toxic pesticides
by Mary Louise Flint
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Focusing UC's agricultural research agenda means everything from looking again at crop rotation to opening new areas of molecular biology.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: The University of California has been a leader in the development of methods to reduce reliance on pesticides. California was the site of the first major successes of biological control for insect pests during the latter part of the 19th century, and the term integrated control (the forerunner of integrated pest management) was coined by UC entomologists in the late 1950s.
The smokybrown cockroach: potential new pest in California
by A. G. Appel, Michael K. Rust, Donald A. Reierson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
At some life stages, this new pest can be confused with the oriental cockroach.
Infestations of this introduced pest have spread to at least 17 locations in three California counties. Localized control may be possible by surveying for infestations, inspecting cargo vehicles, applying chemicals, and trapping.
Biology and control of the ten lined June beetle in almonds
by Robert A. Van Steenwyk, Donald Rough, Paul S. Verdegaal
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Two insecticide treatments — one at egg hatch and another at the third instar— provide effective control of this pest. (Photo by Jack Kelly Clark)
The tenlined June beetle has one generation every two years. Most larvae are in the top 14 inches of soil, and female adults apparently do not fly. Diazinon granules applied to the soil suppress larval populations.
Melaleuca alternifolia: new crop for California?
by Roy M. Sachs, Choong I. Lee, Sue A. Cartwright, Michael S. Reid, Colin Smith
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Thetea tree yields a valuable oil; it shows promise as a profitable crop in the Central Valley.
Researchers say tea trees can we grown successfully and with profitable oil yields in California's Central Valley. Based on an analysis of seedlings from one seed source, the yield from a seedling plantation would be about half that of a clonal plantation derived from the best seedlings.
Spring and summer nitrogen applications to Vina walnuts
by William F. Richardson, Roland D. Meyer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The timing of nitrogen fertilization may affect walnut yields.
Walnut yield responses to nitrogen applied in spring or fall, or split between spring and fall varied in an experiment on deep alluvial Columbia soil. Leaf and twig nitrogen responded most to recently applied nitrogen. Matching the crop's rate of nitrogen removal with the nitrogen application rate and monitoring plant nutritional status with leaf analysis should contribute to economical, environmentally sound walnut orchard management.

News and Opinion

Agricultural pest control alternatives
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  

General Information

Correction: July-August 1990
by Editors
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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