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California Agriculture, Vol. 45, No.1

Culinary herbs
January-February 1991
Volume 45, Number 1

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Culinary herb use in southern California restaurants
by Stephen H. Brown
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Many chefs would like to buy their fresh herbs direct from growers rather than go through traditional channels. (Photo by Jack Kelly Clark)
Southern California restaurants are increasing their use of fresh culinary herbs. Opportunities exist for well-placed growers to take advantage of the restauranteurs' desire to deal directly with farmers.
Controlling Russian wheat aphid in California
by Vernon M. Stern, Steve B. Orloff
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Agricultural chemicals can keep this fast spreading pest in check; researchers are trying to keep applications to a minimum.
The Russian wheat aphid is spreading rapidly through California. The pest injects a powerful, growth-inhibiting toxin into grain plants. Without insecticide treatment, crop losses can be severe.
Effect of a topically applied whitener on sun damage to Granny Smith apples
by G. Steven Sibbett, Warren C. Micke, F. Gordon Mitchell, Gene Mayer, James T. Yeager
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Whitening agents reflect sunlight to prevent damage to tomatoes and walnuts; trials show no such benefit to Granny Smith apples.
Sunblush, sunburn, and sunscald injury of Granny Smith apple fruits is widespread and results in substantial economic loss when this cultivar is gra wn in the interior valleys of California. Topical, in-season applications of a whitening agent did not protect the crop from these heat-related injuries.
Low-input management of weeds in vegetable fields
by W. Thomas Lanini, Michelle Le Strange
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Hand weeding the crop at the right time can allow smaller herbicide applications and still maintain high crop yields.
Applying less herbicide to a vegetable crop can increase weed populations and decrease yields. Field trials showed that for some crops, one timely hand weeding could augment lo wer-rate applications of pre-emergence herbicides to give crop yields equal to or exceeding those obtained with fullseason hand weeding or full-rate herbicide treatments.
Irrigation uniformity and cotton yields in the San Joaquin Valley
by Dennis Wichelns, J. D. Oster
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Cotton yield and irrigation data suggest that greater irrigation uniformity may lead to higher yields.
Cotton yield data collected from 32 fields in the Broadview Water District are negatively correlated with several measures of soil salinity, sodicity, and irrigation uniformity. Results suggest that farmers may be able to increase cotton yields by improving irrigation uniformity on surface-irrigated fields.
The Estonian Turg and the California Certified Farmers' Market
by Robert Sommer, Maaris Raudsepp
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Shoppers in both societies see the farmers' market as a lively social center and a good place to get high-quality, varied produce from small, local growers.
A 1989 comparison showed the Estonian farmers' market to be superior to that country's state-run food stores in quantity and quality of food service, but that farmers' market items were higher in price. Based on surveys, the authors compare the roles played by farmers' markets in the economies of Estonia and California.
Vaccinating grapevines against spider mites
by Richard Karban, Gregory English-Loeb, Paul Verdegaal
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
By deliberately releasing Willamette mites onto Central Valley grapevines early in the season, researchers successfully reduced Pacific mite problems later on.
Central Valley grape growers can reduce damage from Pacific mites by inoculating infested vines with the less-damaging Willamette mites. Such “vaccinations” may become a useful technique for pest management.
Wild oat competition in short-statured wheat
by David W. Cudney, Lowell S. Jordan, Warren E. Bendixen, Jodie Holt, A. E. Hall, Chris J. Corbett, John S. Reints
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Both species are equally competitive until late in the season, when wild oat grows taller, shading the shorter wheat.
Wild oat and wheat were synchronized in their development and were shown to be equally competitive in southern California studies. Competition effects of wild oat were most evident in wheat after the stem elongation stage.
Liquid polymers keep drip irrigation lines from clogging
by J. L. Meyer, M. J. Snyder, L. H. Valenzuela, A. Harris, R. Strohman
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Injected into the drip irrigation water, these chemicals inhibit lime deposits that can obstruct drip orifices and emitters.
Clogging from lime (CaCO3) precipitation can be prevented by injecting a homopolymer of maleic anhydride into buried drip systems. Investigators prevented drip tubing from clogging in coastal strawberry plots by using this polymer and chlorine for high-bicarbonate waters.
A shoppers' survey: California nuts and produce, food quality, and food safety
by Marciel A. Pastore, Christine M. Bruhn
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Food shoppers have diverse ideas about what makes a good produce buy. Ideas about broccoli color vary, but most agree that “cabbage is cabbage.”
795 consumers interviewed at 53 California markets gave a variety of reasons for buying the way they do. Many had their own ideas about what indicates good quality in produce, but had trouble putting those ideas into words. Consumer ideas about food safety were easier to articulate.
Aphid problems increase on ornamentals
by Stacy L. Vehrs, Michael P. Parrella
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
An aphid-specific fungus may provide nonchemical control in the greenhouse.
Aphids, and the green peach and melon aphids in particular, have dramatically increased their effect on ornamental crops over the past few years. An aphid-specific fungus may be useful for biological control under the right environmental conditions.
Thinning Granny Smith apples chemically
by Warren C. Micke, Joseph A. Grant, Maxwell V. Norton, James T. Yeager
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
By chemically thinning the fruit on mature Granny Smith trees, growers can increase the size of the remaining fruit this season and increase the number of flowers next season.
Chemically thinning Granny Smith apples improved fruit size and, perhaps more importantly, increased return bloom the following year. While carbaryl did the best job of chemical thinning, two other registered materials were also effective.
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California Agriculture, Vol. 45, No.1

Culinary herbs
January-February 1991
Volume 45, Number 1

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Culinary herb use in southern California restaurants
by Stephen H. Brown
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Many chefs would like to buy their fresh herbs direct from growers rather than go through traditional channels. (Photo by Jack Kelly Clark)
Southern California restaurants are increasing their use of fresh culinary herbs. Opportunities exist for well-placed growers to take advantage of the restauranteurs' desire to deal directly with farmers.
Controlling Russian wheat aphid in California
by Vernon M. Stern, Steve B. Orloff
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Agricultural chemicals can keep this fast spreading pest in check; researchers are trying to keep applications to a minimum.
The Russian wheat aphid is spreading rapidly through California. The pest injects a powerful, growth-inhibiting toxin into grain plants. Without insecticide treatment, crop losses can be severe.
Effect of a topically applied whitener on sun damage to Granny Smith apples
by G. Steven Sibbett, Warren C. Micke, F. Gordon Mitchell, Gene Mayer, James T. Yeager
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Whitening agents reflect sunlight to prevent damage to tomatoes and walnuts; trials show no such benefit to Granny Smith apples.
Sunblush, sunburn, and sunscald injury of Granny Smith apple fruits is widespread and results in substantial economic loss when this cultivar is gra wn in the interior valleys of California. Topical, in-season applications of a whitening agent did not protect the crop from these heat-related injuries.
Low-input management of weeds in vegetable fields
by W. Thomas Lanini, Michelle Le Strange
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Hand weeding the crop at the right time can allow smaller herbicide applications and still maintain high crop yields.
Applying less herbicide to a vegetable crop can increase weed populations and decrease yields. Field trials showed that for some crops, one timely hand weeding could augment lo wer-rate applications of pre-emergence herbicides to give crop yields equal to or exceeding those obtained with fullseason hand weeding or full-rate herbicide treatments.
Irrigation uniformity and cotton yields in the San Joaquin Valley
by Dennis Wichelns, J. D. Oster
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Cotton yield and irrigation data suggest that greater irrigation uniformity may lead to higher yields.
Cotton yield data collected from 32 fields in the Broadview Water District are negatively correlated with several measures of soil salinity, sodicity, and irrigation uniformity. Results suggest that farmers may be able to increase cotton yields by improving irrigation uniformity on surface-irrigated fields.
The Estonian Turg and the California Certified Farmers' Market
by Robert Sommer, Maaris Raudsepp
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Shoppers in both societies see the farmers' market as a lively social center and a good place to get high-quality, varied produce from small, local growers.
A 1989 comparison showed the Estonian farmers' market to be superior to that country's state-run food stores in quantity and quality of food service, but that farmers' market items were higher in price. Based on surveys, the authors compare the roles played by farmers' markets in the economies of Estonia and California.
Vaccinating grapevines against spider mites
by Richard Karban, Gregory English-Loeb, Paul Verdegaal
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
By deliberately releasing Willamette mites onto Central Valley grapevines early in the season, researchers successfully reduced Pacific mite problems later on.
Central Valley grape growers can reduce damage from Pacific mites by inoculating infested vines with the less-damaging Willamette mites. Such “vaccinations” may become a useful technique for pest management.
Wild oat competition in short-statured wheat
by David W. Cudney, Lowell S. Jordan, Warren E. Bendixen, Jodie Holt, A. E. Hall, Chris J. Corbett, John S. Reints
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Both species are equally competitive until late in the season, when wild oat grows taller, shading the shorter wheat.
Wild oat and wheat were synchronized in their development and were shown to be equally competitive in southern California studies. Competition effects of wild oat were most evident in wheat after the stem elongation stage.
Liquid polymers keep drip irrigation lines from clogging
by J. L. Meyer, M. J. Snyder, L. H. Valenzuela, A. Harris, R. Strohman
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Injected into the drip irrigation water, these chemicals inhibit lime deposits that can obstruct drip orifices and emitters.
Clogging from lime (CaCO3) precipitation can be prevented by injecting a homopolymer of maleic anhydride into buried drip systems. Investigators prevented drip tubing from clogging in coastal strawberry plots by using this polymer and chlorine for high-bicarbonate waters.
A shoppers' survey: California nuts and produce, food quality, and food safety
by Marciel A. Pastore, Christine M. Bruhn
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Food shoppers have diverse ideas about what makes a good produce buy. Ideas about broccoli color vary, but most agree that “cabbage is cabbage.”
795 consumers interviewed at 53 California markets gave a variety of reasons for buying the way they do. Many had their own ideas about what indicates good quality in produce, but had trouble putting those ideas into words. Consumer ideas about food safety were easier to articulate.
Aphid problems increase on ornamentals
by Stacy L. Vehrs, Michael P. Parrella
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
An aphid-specific fungus may provide nonchemical control in the greenhouse.
Aphids, and the green peach and melon aphids in particular, have dramatically increased their effect on ornamental crops over the past few years. An aphid-specific fungus may be useful for biological control under the right environmental conditions.
Thinning Granny Smith apples chemically
by Warren C. Micke, Joseph A. Grant, Maxwell V. Norton, James T. Yeager
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
By chemically thinning the fruit on mature Granny Smith trees, growers can increase the size of the remaining fruit this season and increase the number of flowers next season.
Chemically thinning Granny Smith apples improved fruit size and, perhaps more importantly, increased return bloom the following year. While carbaryl did the best job of chemical thinning, two other registered materials were also effective.

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