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California Agriculture, Vol. 16, No.2

Farmer cooperators in research
February 1962
Volume 16, Number 2

Research articles

Concentrate spraying possibilities: Shown in California orchard tests
by J. E. Dibble, H. F. Madsen, G. R. Post, A. H. Retan
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Concentrate sprays gave equal or near equal control against insects and mites on pears, prunes, peaches and almonds when compared with dilute sprays in last season's tests in Northern California orchards. Possible advantages in the use of concentrate sprayers include reductions in the amount of water needed and number of fills now used per acre in dilute spraying (40 to 80 vs. 300 to 1500 gallons per acre). The amount of pesticide used per acre can also be reduced by 25 to 40 per cent. Reductions are also possible in time and man hours per job as well as sprayer costs and maintenance with use of concentrate spraying equipment. No phytotoxic effects were caused by any of the spray test applications.
Concentrate sprays gave equal or near equal control against insects and mites on pears, prunes, peaches and almonds when compared with dilute sprays in last season's tests in Northern California orchards. Possible advantages in the use of concentrate sprayers include reductions in the amount of water needed and number of fills now used per acre in dilute spraying (40 to 80 vs. 300 to 1500 gallons per acre). The amount of pesticide used per acre can also be reduced by 25 to 40 per cent. Reductions are also possible in time and man hours per job as well as sprayer costs and maintenance with use of concentrate spraying equipment. No phytotoxic effects were caused by any of the spray test applications.
Metal ammonium phosphates
by O. R. Lunt, F. T. Yamaguchi, S. B. Clark
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Magnesium or ferrous ammonium phosphates appear very promising for specialty use where large applications and long duration of nitrogen supply are important.
Magnesium or ferrous ammonium phosphates appear very promising for specialty use where large applications and long duration of nitrogen supply are important.
Cotton breeding progress continues
by John H. Turner
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: San Joaquin cotton production records show outstanding progress during the past decade. Lint yield in this one-variety district averaged 625 pounds per acre for the first three years of the decade (1951-53) compared with 1020 pounds for the last three years (1958-60). This gain of 63 per cent in yield is attributed to a combination of (a) varietal improvements in Acala 4-42, and (b) the better “know-how” employed by the grower. Textile mills have recognized improvements in spinning quality to the extent that the demand for California's Acala 4-42 far exceeds the supply.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: San Joaquin cotton production records show outstanding progress during the past decade. Lint yield in this one-variety district averaged 625 pounds per acre for the first three years of the decade (1951-53) compared with 1020 pounds for the last three years (1958-60). This gain of 63 per cent in yield is attributed to a combination of (a) varietal improvements in Acala 4-42, and (b) the better “know-how” employed by the grower. Textile mills have recognized improvements in spinning quality to the extent that the demand for California's Acala 4-42 far exceeds the supply.
Effect of fertilizer, row spacing and clipping on alfalfa seed
by Luther G. Jones, C. R. Pomeroy
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Quick starting of seedlings and better plant survival were the primary results of fertilization for alfalfa seed production, according to three years of trials at the West Side Field Station, Fresno County. Alfalfa seed yields were not influenced by fertilizer applications (singly or in com- binations) of nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, gypsum or minor elements when used on established stands. Plant distribution and density of stands were definitely shown to be factors in alfalfa seed setting. Thinning within the row was found beneficial, and the best three-year average yields were in thinned stands where rows were spaced 24 to 48 inches apart. The indicated dates to cut back stands to start a seed crop were from April 10 to 20 at this location. Nitrogen and phosphorus (15 to 20 units of each) applied, at or before planting, and slightly below or to one side of the drilled seed, were beneficial in establishing stands, but usually failed to show an increase in yield.
Quick starting of seedlings and better plant survival were the primary results of fertilization for alfalfa seed production, according to three years of trials at the West Side Field Station, Fresno County. Alfalfa seed yields were not influenced by fertilizer applications (singly or in com- binations) of nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, gypsum or minor elements when used on established stands. Plant distribution and density of stands were definitely shown to be factors in alfalfa seed setting. Thinning within the row was found beneficial, and the best three-year average yields were in thinned stands where rows were spaced 24 to 48 inches apart. The indicated dates to cut back stands to start a seed crop were from April 10 to 20 at this location. Nitrogen and phosphorus (15 to 20 units of each) applied, at or before planting, and slightly below or to one side of the drilled seed, were beneficial in establishing stands, but usually failed to show an increase in yield.
Gamma radiation device: Aids study of water movement in soil
by J. M. Davidson, D. R. Nielsen, J. W. Biggar
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: The ability of soil to transmit water affects the rate, frequency and method of irrigation–and can often limit cropping possibilities in non-irrigated areas. Knowledge can be obtained on water movement through soil by measuring changes occurring after different periods of time. The gamma ray apparatus measures soil moisture on the basis that $$ gamma rays will pass through a $$et soil than a dry soil.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: The ability of soil to transmit water affects the rate, frequency and method of irrigation–and can often limit cropping possibilities in non-irrigated areas. Knowledge can be obtained on water movement through soil by measuring changes occurring after different periods of time. The gamma ray apparatus measures soil moisture on the basis that $$ gamma rays will pass through a $$et soil than a dry soil.
Kapareil: —A new small-kernel almond variety for confections
by Dale E. Kester
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Kapareil, a new small-kernel almond variety, may be the answer to demands of manufacturers of candy bars for smallsized nuts—an almond industry marketing problem that has existed for many years. Because of the need for such a variety, Kapareil is being released now by the California Agricultural Experiment Station for unrestricted propagation. The variety has consistently produced a high percentage of the desired sizes in different seasons, from different test plots. The tree shows promise of effective use in orchards although certain undesirable characteristics have been recognized. These and long-time productivity can best be analyzed with commercial plantings.
Kapareil, a new small-kernel almond variety, may be the answer to demands of manufacturers of candy bars for smallsized nuts—an almond industry marketing problem that has existed for many years. Because of the need for such a variety, Kapareil is being released now by the California Agricultural Experiment Station for unrestricted propagation. The variety has consistently produced a high percentage of the desired sizes in different seasons, from different test plots. The tree shows promise of effective use in orchards although certain undesirable characteristics have been recognized. These and long-time productivity can best be analyzed with commercial plantings.
Black light traps: —Help determine flights of codling moths and other deciduous fruit pests
by H. F. Madsen, Ross R. Sanborn
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Black light traps have been shown to be an efficient means of trapping many lepidopterous pests which attack deciduous fruits. They can also be used in determining the flight habits of moths that are not attracted to baits, such as the peach twig borer and navel orangeworm. The black light traps offer a more accurate means of timing sprays for codling moths because they will attract insects that are comparatively young in terms of reproduction. In addition they would probably be more effective in attracting moths when populations are low.
Black light traps have been shown to be an efficient means of trapping many lepidopterous pests which attack deciduous fruits. They can also be used in determining the flight habits of moths that are not attracted to baits, such as the peach twig borer and navel orangeworm. The black light traps offer a more accurate means of timing sprays for codling moths because they will attract insects that are comparatively young in terms of reproduction. In addition they would probably be more effective in attracting moths when populations are low.
Early mulched strawberries: Early mulching of winter-planted strawberries with clear polyethylene gives gross yield increases
by Victor Voth, R. S. Bringhurst
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: The fruit yield and performance pattern of winter-planted strawberries in California depends largely on how much the plants grow during the winter months. If they grow considerably, more flower buds are initiated because of the short photoperiod, and the crowns develop sufficiently to support a sizable early crop.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: The fruit yield and performance pattern of winter-planted strawberries in California depends largely on how much the plants grow during the winter months. If they grow considerably, more flower buds are initiated because of the short photoperiod, and the crowns develop sufficiently to support a sizable early crop.
Quality of percolating waters
by Gordon R. Dutt
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Overpumping ground water for agricultural, domestic, and industrial use has resulted in a lowering water table in many areas of California. The California Water Plan includes delivery of surface water to some of these areas to make up the water deficits and to provide water for future development. Since the amount of surface water available each year is variable, it has been proposed that in years when excess water exists, it be used to recharge the underground water supply.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Overpumping ground water for agricultural, domestic, and industrial use has resulted in a lowering water table in many areas of California. The California Water Plan includes delivery of surface water to some of these areas to make up the water deficits and to provide water for future development. Since the amount of surface water available each year is variable, it has been proposed that in years when excess water exists, it be used to recharge the underground water supply.

General Information

Farm cooperators in research
by Editors
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 16, No.2

Farmer cooperators in research
February 1962
Volume 16, Number 2

Research articles

Concentrate spraying possibilities: Shown in California orchard tests
by J. E. Dibble, H. F. Madsen, G. R. Post, A. H. Retan
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Concentrate sprays gave equal or near equal control against insects and mites on pears, prunes, peaches and almonds when compared with dilute sprays in last season's tests in Northern California orchards. Possible advantages in the use of concentrate sprayers include reductions in the amount of water needed and number of fills now used per acre in dilute spraying (40 to 80 vs. 300 to 1500 gallons per acre). The amount of pesticide used per acre can also be reduced by 25 to 40 per cent. Reductions are also possible in time and man hours per job as well as sprayer costs and maintenance with use of concentrate spraying equipment. No phytotoxic effects were caused by any of the spray test applications.
Concentrate sprays gave equal or near equal control against insects and mites on pears, prunes, peaches and almonds when compared with dilute sprays in last season's tests in Northern California orchards. Possible advantages in the use of concentrate sprayers include reductions in the amount of water needed and number of fills now used per acre in dilute spraying (40 to 80 vs. 300 to 1500 gallons per acre). The amount of pesticide used per acre can also be reduced by 25 to 40 per cent. Reductions are also possible in time and man hours per job as well as sprayer costs and maintenance with use of concentrate spraying equipment. No phytotoxic effects were caused by any of the spray test applications.
Metal ammonium phosphates
by O. R. Lunt, F. T. Yamaguchi, S. B. Clark
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Magnesium or ferrous ammonium phosphates appear very promising for specialty use where large applications and long duration of nitrogen supply are important.
Magnesium or ferrous ammonium phosphates appear very promising for specialty use where large applications and long duration of nitrogen supply are important.
Cotton breeding progress continues
by John H. Turner
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: San Joaquin cotton production records show outstanding progress during the past decade. Lint yield in this one-variety district averaged 625 pounds per acre for the first three years of the decade (1951-53) compared with 1020 pounds for the last three years (1958-60). This gain of 63 per cent in yield is attributed to a combination of (a) varietal improvements in Acala 4-42, and (b) the better “know-how” employed by the grower. Textile mills have recognized improvements in spinning quality to the extent that the demand for California's Acala 4-42 far exceeds the supply.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: San Joaquin cotton production records show outstanding progress during the past decade. Lint yield in this one-variety district averaged 625 pounds per acre for the first three years of the decade (1951-53) compared with 1020 pounds for the last three years (1958-60). This gain of 63 per cent in yield is attributed to a combination of (a) varietal improvements in Acala 4-42, and (b) the better “know-how” employed by the grower. Textile mills have recognized improvements in spinning quality to the extent that the demand for California's Acala 4-42 far exceeds the supply.
Effect of fertilizer, row spacing and clipping on alfalfa seed
by Luther G. Jones, C. R. Pomeroy
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Quick starting of seedlings and better plant survival were the primary results of fertilization for alfalfa seed production, according to three years of trials at the West Side Field Station, Fresno County. Alfalfa seed yields were not influenced by fertilizer applications (singly or in com- binations) of nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, gypsum or minor elements when used on established stands. Plant distribution and density of stands were definitely shown to be factors in alfalfa seed setting. Thinning within the row was found beneficial, and the best three-year average yields were in thinned stands where rows were spaced 24 to 48 inches apart. The indicated dates to cut back stands to start a seed crop were from April 10 to 20 at this location. Nitrogen and phosphorus (15 to 20 units of each) applied, at or before planting, and slightly below or to one side of the drilled seed, were beneficial in establishing stands, but usually failed to show an increase in yield.
Quick starting of seedlings and better plant survival were the primary results of fertilization for alfalfa seed production, according to three years of trials at the West Side Field Station, Fresno County. Alfalfa seed yields were not influenced by fertilizer applications (singly or in com- binations) of nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, gypsum or minor elements when used on established stands. Plant distribution and density of stands were definitely shown to be factors in alfalfa seed setting. Thinning within the row was found beneficial, and the best three-year average yields were in thinned stands where rows were spaced 24 to 48 inches apart. The indicated dates to cut back stands to start a seed crop were from April 10 to 20 at this location. Nitrogen and phosphorus (15 to 20 units of each) applied, at or before planting, and slightly below or to one side of the drilled seed, were beneficial in establishing stands, but usually failed to show an increase in yield.
Gamma radiation device: Aids study of water movement in soil
by J. M. Davidson, D. R. Nielsen, J. W. Biggar
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: The ability of soil to transmit water affects the rate, frequency and method of irrigation–and can often limit cropping possibilities in non-irrigated areas. Knowledge can be obtained on water movement through soil by measuring changes occurring after different periods of time. The gamma ray apparatus measures soil moisture on the basis that $$ gamma rays will pass through a $$et soil than a dry soil.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: The ability of soil to transmit water affects the rate, frequency and method of irrigation–and can often limit cropping possibilities in non-irrigated areas. Knowledge can be obtained on water movement through soil by measuring changes occurring after different periods of time. The gamma ray apparatus measures soil moisture on the basis that $$ gamma rays will pass through a $$et soil than a dry soil.
Kapareil: —A new small-kernel almond variety for confections
by Dale E. Kester
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Kapareil, a new small-kernel almond variety, may be the answer to demands of manufacturers of candy bars for smallsized nuts—an almond industry marketing problem that has existed for many years. Because of the need for such a variety, Kapareil is being released now by the California Agricultural Experiment Station for unrestricted propagation. The variety has consistently produced a high percentage of the desired sizes in different seasons, from different test plots. The tree shows promise of effective use in orchards although certain undesirable characteristics have been recognized. These and long-time productivity can best be analyzed with commercial plantings.
Kapareil, a new small-kernel almond variety, may be the answer to demands of manufacturers of candy bars for smallsized nuts—an almond industry marketing problem that has existed for many years. Because of the need for such a variety, Kapareil is being released now by the California Agricultural Experiment Station for unrestricted propagation. The variety has consistently produced a high percentage of the desired sizes in different seasons, from different test plots. The tree shows promise of effective use in orchards although certain undesirable characteristics have been recognized. These and long-time productivity can best be analyzed with commercial plantings.
Black light traps: —Help determine flights of codling moths and other deciduous fruit pests
by H. F. Madsen, Ross R. Sanborn
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Black light traps have been shown to be an efficient means of trapping many lepidopterous pests which attack deciduous fruits. They can also be used in determining the flight habits of moths that are not attracted to baits, such as the peach twig borer and navel orangeworm. The black light traps offer a more accurate means of timing sprays for codling moths because they will attract insects that are comparatively young in terms of reproduction. In addition they would probably be more effective in attracting moths when populations are low.
Black light traps have been shown to be an efficient means of trapping many lepidopterous pests which attack deciduous fruits. They can also be used in determining the flight habits of moths that are not attracted to baits, such as the peach twig borer and navel orangeworm. The black light traps offer a more accurate means of timing sprays for codling moths because they will attract insects that are comparatively young in terms of reproduction. In addition they would probably be more effective in attracting moths when populations are low.
Early mulched strawberries: Early mulching of winter-planted strawberries with clear polyethylene gives gross yield increases
by Victor Voth, R. S. Bringhurst
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: The fruit yield and performance pattern of winter-planted strawberries in California depends largely on how much the plants grow during the winter months. If they grow considerably, more flower buds are initiated because of the short photoperiod, and the crowns develop sufficiently to support a sizable early crop.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: The fruit yield and performance pattern of winter-planted strawberries in California depends largely on how much the plants grow during the winter months. If they grow considerably, more flower buds are initiated because of the short photoperiod, and the crowns develop sufficiently to support a sizable early crop.
Quality of percolating waters
by Gordon R. Dutt
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Overpumping ground water for agricultural, domestic, and industrial use has resulted in a lowering water table in many areas of California. The California Water Plan includes delivery of surface water to some of these areas to make up the water deficits and to provide water for future development. Since the amount of surface water available each year is variable, it has been proposed that in years when excess water exists, it be used to recharge the underground water supply.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Overpumping ground water for agricultural, domestic, and industrial use has resulted in a lowering water table in many areas of California. The California Water Plan includes delivery of surface water to some of these areas to make up the water deficits and to provide water for future development. Since the amount of surface water available each year is variable, it has been proposed that in years when excess water exists, it be used to recharge the underground water supply.

General Information

Farm cooperators in research
by Editors
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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