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March-April 1990
Volume 44, Number 2

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Sierra Foothill Range Field StationThirty years of research: an overview
by Charles A. Raguse, Gary A. Beall, John L. Hull, Douglas McCreary, Charles B. Wilson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The Sierra station, near Browns Valley in northern California, will be 30 years old this June: As can be seen from the air, the station's terrain is typical of much of California's foothill rangelands. Wooded, partially wooded, and cleared hills surround the headquarters and slope down to the Timbuctoo Bend of the Yuba River. The following eight reports indicate the variety of subjects covered by the research program at this center. (Cover photo by Charles Raguse)
The Sierra station, near Browns Valley in northern California, will be 30 years old this June:As can be seen from the air, the station's terrain is typical of much of California's foothill rangelands. Wooded, partially wooded, and cleared hills surround the headquarters and slope down to the Timbuctoo Bend of the Yuba River. The following eight reports indicate the variety of subjects covered by the research program at this center. (Cover photo by Charles Raguse)
Update on short-duration grazing study on irrigated pasture
by Kenneth L. Taggard, Charles A. Raguse, Melvin R. George, John L. Hull, Cynthia Daley, J. M. Connor
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A second year of results showed similar responses by forage and by livestock to both forage-grazing levels tested.
Two-year results showed similar responses to two levels of pasture accumulation-grazing utilization management. Orchardgrass height and capacitance probe readings were both useful in monitoring forage availability, but stocking rate predictions using grass height were less variable and change in grass height during grazing was more closely related to seasonal liveweight gain.
Managing bovine pinkeye in beef calves
by Lisle W. George
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Field studies showed herds could be effectively treated for pinkeye with oxytetracycline or penicillin.
Two field studies showed that a widespread pinkeye epidemic in a herd can be effectively treated with injections of long-acting oxytetracycline, followed by feeding the antibiotic in the ration. When the disease is less prevalent, injecting affected animals with penicillin or oxytetracycline is effective.
Supplements evaluated for wintering range calves
by John R. Dunbar, Cindy A. Daley, J. M. Connor, Charles B. Wilson, Charles A. Raguse, Thomas R. Famula, Melvin R. George
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Feeding urea plus corn gluten meal and stocking at the higher density gave the highest return.
In two range feeding trials to evaluate supplemental nitrogen and/or bypass protein source and stocking densities, calves at a low density gained more weight than high-density groups. Dollar return during the supplementation phase, however, was highest from high-density groups fed a combination of urea and corn gluten meal.
Blue oaks withstand drought
by Douglas D. McCreary
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summer leaf loss in drought years had little short-term effect, but more lasting effects remain to be determined.
Many blue oaks in California lost their leaves early in 1987 and 1988 after prolonged periods of low rainfall. A study found that summer defoliation had little short-term effect on growth or survival, suggesting that blue oaks are well adapted to withstand periodic droughts.
Selective oak removal does not harm water quality
by Michael J. Singer, Xiaohong Huang, Charlette Epifanio
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Long-term measurements on a foothill watershed showed no harm to water quality from careful oak removal.
Measurements before and after removal of oaks from 14% of a 250-acre watershed indicated small but not statistically significant increases in the runoff/rainfall ratio and no change in nutrient or sediment removal. Careful, selective oak removal appeared to have no harmful effect on water quality.
Wildlife diversity of the central Sierra foothills
by William M. Block, Michael L. Morrison
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The large number of wildlife species in the station's oak woodlands was directly related to habitat diversity.
A 3-year study of wildlife-habitat relationships in the oak woodlands of California's Sierra foothills found a wide range of species. This was directly related to the diversity of habitats provided by oak woodlands.
Seasonal activity of two human-biting ticks
by Robert S. Lane
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Adults of two tick species that can carry agents causing human disease were most active in cool months.
In northern California, the western black-legged tick is considered the primary vector of the spirochete that causes Lyme disease. That tick and the Pacific Coast tick also can be carriers of several other diseases. In one study to learn when humans and other animals are at greatest risk of exposure, adults of both tick species were found to be most abundant during the cooler seasons.
Eucalyptus shows unexpected cold tolerance
by Janine K. Hasey, J. M. Connor
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Many eucalyptus trees at a low-elevation foothill test site survived temperatures below previously reported minimums.
Although some species of eucalyptus trees in an experimental plantation were damaged in a 1989 cold snap, several species and clones survived temperatures lower than previously thought to be tolerated. The trees are in a low-elevation Sierra foothill test planting used for studies assessing fuelwood growth rates.
Use of long-range weather forecasts in crop predictions
by Bryan G. Weare
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The forecasts have large uncertainties that hinder useful crop predictions, but improvements are being made.
Uncertainties in weather forecasts still present the greatest problem in making useful crop predictions. Weather variables needed for crop growth models are minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, and solar radiation. Each of the three potential sources of long-range forecasts of such variables has deficiencies, but improvements offer some encouragement.
Grafting California native oaks
by William D. Tietje, John H. Foott, Elizabeth L. Labor
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Encouraging preliminary results were obtained in a San Luis Obispo County study of grafting blue and valley oak scions to blue oak rootstock.
Preliminary results of grafting blue oak and valley oak scions to blue oak rootstock are encouraging. It appears that grafting of California native oaks has potential research and management applications.
Control of two avocado mite pests
by J. Blair Bailey, Kirk N. Olsen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Sulfur was effective against avocado brown mite. Some other materials tested controlled that and sixspotted mite.
Several materials were tested for possible use when avocado brown mite and sixspotted mite populations build up, threatening to cause extensive leaf drop. Sulfur was effective against avocado brown mite. Others, at present unregistered for this use, were effective against both mites.
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March-April 1990
Volume 44, Number 2

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Sierra Foothill Range Field StationThirty years of research: an overview
by Charles A. Raguse, Gary A. Beall, John L. Hull, Douglas McCreary, Charles B. Wilson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The Sierra station, near Browns Valley in northern California, will be 30 years old this June: As can be seen from the air, the station's terrain is typical of much of California's foothill rangelands. Wooded, partially wooded, and cleared hills surround the headquarters and slope down to the Timbuctoo Bend of the Yuba River. The following eight reports indicate the variety of subjects covered by the research program at this center. (Cover photo by Charles Raguse)
The Sierra station, near Browns Valley in northern California, will be 30 years old this June:As can be seen from the air, the station's terrain is typical of much of California's foothill rangelands. Wooded, partially wooded, and cleared hills surround the headquarters and slope down to the Timbuctoo Bend of the Yuba River. The following eight reports indicate the variety of subjects covered by the research program at this center. (Cover photo by Charles Raguse)
Update on short-duration grazing study on irrigated pasture
by Kenneth L. Taggard, Charles A. Raguse, Melvin R. George, John L. Hull, Cynthia Daley, J. M. Connor
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A second year of results showed similar responses by forage and by livestock to both forage-grazing levels tested.
Two-year results showed similar responses to two levels of pasture accumulation-grazing utilization management. Orchardgrass height and capacitance probe readings were both useful in monitoring forage availability, but stocking rate predictions using grass height were less variable and change in grass height during grazing was more closely related to seasonal liveweight gain.
Managing bovine pinkeye in beef calves
by Lisle W. George
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Field studies showed herds could be effectively treated for pinkeye with oxytetracycline or penicillin.
Two field studies showed that a widespread pinkeye epidemic in a herd can be effectively treated with injections of long-acting oxytetracycline, followed by feeding the antibiotic in the ration. When the disease is less prevalent, injecting affected animals with penicillin or oxytetracycline is effective.
Supplements evaluated for wintering range calves
by John R. Dunbar, Cindy A. Daley, J. M. Connor, Charles B. Wilson, Charles A. Raguse, Thomas R. Famula, Melvin R. George
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Feeding urea plus corn gluten meal and stocking at the higher density gave the highest return.
In two range feeding trials to evaluate supplemental nitrogen and/or bypass protein source and stocking densities, calves at a low density gained more weight than high-density groups. Dollar return during the supplementation phase, however, was highest from high-density groups fed a combination of urea and corn gluten meal.
Blue oaks withstand drought
by Douglas D. McCreary
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summer leaf loss in drought years had little short-term effect, but more lasting effects remain to be determined.
Many blue oaks in California lost their leaves early in 1987 and 1988 after prolonged periods of low rainfall. A study found that summer defoliation had little short-term effect on growth or survival, suggesting that blue oaks are well adapted to withstand periodic droughts.
Selective oak removal does not harm water quality
by Michael J. Singer, Xiaohong Huang, Charlette Epifanio
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Long-term measurements on a foothill watershed showed no harm to water quality from careful oak removal.
Measurements before and after removal of oaks from 14% of a 250-acre watershed indicated small but not statistically significant increases in the runoff/rainfall ratio and no change in nutrient or sediment removal. Careful, selective oak removal appeared to have no harmful effect on water quality.
Wildlife diversity of the central Sierra foothills
by William M. Block, Michael L. Morrison
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The large number of wildlife species in the station's oak woodlands was directly related to habitat diversity.
A 3-year study of wildlife-habitat relationships in the oak woodlands of California's Sierra foothills found a wide range of species. This was directly related to the diversity of habitats provided by oak woodlands.
Seasonal activity of two human-biting ticks
by Robert S. Lane
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Adults of two tick species that can carry agents causing human disease were most active in cool months.
In northern California, the western black-legged tick is considered the primary vector of the spirochete that causes Lyme disease. That tick and the Pacific Coast tick also can be carriers of several other diseases. In one study to learn when humans and other animals are at greatest risk of exposure, adults of both tick species were found to be most abundant during the cooler seasons.
Eucalyptus shows unexpected cold tolerance
by Janine K. Hasey, J. M. Connor
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Many eucalyptus trees at a low-elevation foothill test site survived temperatures below previously reported minimums.
Although some species of eucalyptus trees in an experimental plantation were damaged in a 1989 cold snap, several species and clones survived temperatures lower than previously thought to be tolerated. The trees are in a low-elevation Sierra foothill test planting used for studies assessing fuelwood growth rates.
Use of long-range weather forecasts in crop predictions
by Bryan G. Weare
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The forecasts have large uncertainties that hinder useful crop predictions, but improvements are being made.
Uncertainties in weather forecasts still present the greatest problem in making useful crop predictions. Weather variables needed for crop growth models are minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, and solar radiation. Each of the three potential sources of long-range forecasts of such variables has deficiencies, but improvements offer some encouragement.
Grafting California native oaks
by William D. Tietje, John H. Foott, Elizabeth L. Labor
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Encouraging preliminary results were obtained in a San Luis Obispo County study of grafting blue and valley oak scions to blue oak rootstock.
Preliminary results of grafting blue oak and valley oak scions to blue oak rootstock are encouraging. It appears that grafting of California native oaks has potential research and management applications.
Control of two avocado mite pests
by J. Blair Bailey, Kirk N. Olsen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Sulfur was effective against avocado brown mite. Some other materials tested controlled that and sixspotted mite.
Several materials were tested for possible use when avocado brown mite and sixspotted mite populations build up, threatening to cause extensive leaf drop. Sulfur was effective against avocado brown mite. Others, at present unregistered for this use, were effective against both mites.

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