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California Agriculture

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California Agriculture, Vol. 43, No.3

75th anniversary of Cooperative Extension
May-June 1989
Volume 43, Number 3

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Simple monitoring of black vine weevil in vineyards
by Phil A. Phillips
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The beetle is spreading in south-central coast vineyards. An easy monitoring method helps in control.
A well-known pest of woody ornamentals, the weevil is now found in some south central coast vineyards. Cardboard tree wraps around vine trunks provide a simple monitoring technique for timing selective sprays to control adults before they lay eggs.
Calcium amendments for water penetration in flooding systems
by William E. Wildman, William H. Krueger, Richard E. Pelton
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Gypsum and calcium nitrate added to irrigation water and surface-applied gypsum all gave encouraging results.
Dissolved gypsum and calcium nitrate each increased infiltration rates over the control for each of the 15 irrigations to which they were added. An equivalent amount of gypsum spread on the surface at the beginning of the experiment had the same beneficial effect for only 10 irrigations.
Agricultural sustainability: An overview and research assessment
by Harold O. Carter
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
There are many good reasons for, but also impediments to, a switch to low-energy-input agriculture.
Agricultural sustainability has different meanings, depending on the context. But many people share a concern that the current, highly productive agricultural system has become so dependent on agri-chemicals that problems have emerged affecting the environment, food safety, farm-worker safety, and production costs. There are hindrances to change, however, and research on low-energy-input farming is still developing. A broad approach is required, taking into consideration not only the farm production system but also the need to “sustain” society as a whole.
Plants that remove selenium from soils
by Gary Banuelos, Gerrit Schrale
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Some "accumulator plants" lowered selenium concentrations in the soil by up to 50% in greenhouse studies.
Initial results from greenhouse experiments suggest that some plants are able to lower selenium concentrations in soils by up to 50%. Use of these plant species to reduce concentrations to acceptable levels in problem soils on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley may be economically feasible.
Effect of fungicides on shot hole disease of almonds
by Beth L. Teviotdale, Mario Viveros, Mark W. Freeman, G. Steven Sibbett
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Several fungicides were effective against shot hole and improved yield when fungus diseases were prevalent.
Several registered fungicides evaluated over a 7-year period in the southern San Joaquin Valley controlled the disease on fruit. Captan, captatol, and ziram preceded by dormant copper provided the most consistent control. Fungicides protected against yield losses in a heavy-disease year but had no effect on yields when the disease was not prevalent.
Foraging in Central Valley agricultural drainage areas
by Mark Campbell, L. Clair Christensen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A large number and variety of people fish, hunt, and gather plants for food or recreation in the drainage area.
For as long as there have been humans in the Central Valley grasslands, they have hunted, fished, and gathered plant or animal life for consumption. “Foraging” became a health concern with the evidence of selenium accumulation at Kesterson Reservoir. A survey suggests that a large number and variety of people forage. The amounts and frequency of consumption are probably not great enough to be a health hazard to any one person or group, but there is still some cause for concern.
Control of potassium deficiency syndrome in cotton by soil solarization
by William L. Weir, Richard H. Garber, James J. Stapleton, Reuben Felix-Gastelum, Roland J. Wakeman, James E. DeVay
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Solarization reduced the potassium defi-ciency-verticillium wilt complex of symptoms and improved lint yields.
Potassium-deficiency symptoms in cotton are widespread in California and become most apparent in leaves during heavy demand by developing bolls. Potassium fertilizers may reduce the problem, but the main cause may be pathogenic organisms in the soil. Soil solarization, which controls soilborne pathogens of cotton, also controls the potassium deficiency problem without appreciable changes in the availability of potassium to cotton roots.
Pistachio culls acceptable in livestock feed
by John L. Hull, John R. Dunbar, Edward J. DePeters, H. Rocky Teranishi, Neil K. McDougald
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Cattle and sheep appeared to accept whole cull nuts in rations without reduction in feed intake or gain.
Whole cull pistachio nuts appear to be acceptable to cattle and sheep as part of their daily rations. Research indicates that cattle can be fed up to 20% of the daily ration without refusal, but this may be too high for sheep.
Seasonal changes may cause vitamin A deficiency in range heifers
by James G. Morris, Teresa I. Iglesias, Myung-Hee Kang
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summer grazing provides inadequate vitamin A. Cows may not need a supplement, but heifers may.
Range cattle obtain vitamin A from carotenoids in green plants. In northern California's foothill ranges, carotenoids are destroyed as forage dries in the summer. Tests of liver and blood plasma in grazing cattle indicated that mature breeding cows can store enough vitamin A during the green season to meet later needs. Heifers on their first calf, however, may need vitamin A supplementation.
Effect of harvesting and handling on damage in canned kidney beans
by W. Mick Canevari, Robert G. Curley, Michael Murray, Clay Brooks, Gerald Knutson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Low bean moisture is the major factor in damage, and the primary sources are warehouse operations and threshing.
Kidney beans become very susceptible to mechanical damage at moisture levels below 11.5% to 12%. It is important, therefore, to harvest early at higher moisture and to minimize mechanical impact during threshing and warehousing operations.
SAW employment data and the need for RAWs
by Howard R. Rosenberg
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Lesser known provisions of the 1986 immigration law deal with replenishment agricultural workers (RAWs).
The 1986 immigration reform act allows “replenishment agricultural workers” to obtain legal resident status beginning October 1989, if farm labor shortages are projected. Federal agencies have to decide how many RAWs to admit and who they will be. Rules recently developed by the Departments of Labor, Agriculture, and Justice to generate data for these determinations hold great significance for employers, workers, and researchers.
Exotic fruit fly pests and California agriculture
by James R. Carey, Robert V. Dowell
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
It is nearly impossible to prevent introductions of the many fruit fly crop pests of worldwide distribution.
Because of their worldwide distribution and numbers, future introductions of fruit flies into California are inevitable. Infestations of economically important pests, including but not limited to the medfly, Mexican fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly, are expensive to treat, and their elimination is seldom certain. Researchers are seeking to improve detection and control methods.

Editorial, News, Letters and Science Briefs

Cooperative Extension: A tradition of investing in California's future
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 43, No.3

75th anniversary of Cooperative Extension
May-June 1989
Volume 43, Number 3

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Simple monitoring of black vine weevil in vineyards
by Phil A. Phillips
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The beetle is spreading in south-central coast vineyards. An easy monitoring method helps in control.
A well-known pest of woody ornamentals, the weevil is now found in some south central coast vineyards. Cardboard tree wraps around vine trunks provide a simple monitoring technique for timing selective sprays to control adults before they lay eggs.
Calcium amendments for water penetration in flooding systems
by William E. Wildman, William H. Krueger, Richard E. Pelton
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Gypsum and calcium nitrate added to irrigation water and surface-applied gypsum all gave encouraging results.
Dissolved gypsum and calcium nitrate each increased infiltration rates over the control for each of the 15 irrigations to which they were added. An equivalent amount of gypsum spread on the surface at the beginning of the experiment had the same beneficial effect for only 10 irrigations.
Agricultural sustainability: An overview and research assessment
by Harold O. Carter
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
There are many good reasons for, but also impediments to, a switch to low-energy-input agriculture.
Agricultural sustainability has different meanings, depending on the context. But many people share a concern that the current, highly productive agricultural system has become so dependent on agri-chemicals that problems have emerged affecting the environment, food safety, farm-worker safety, and production costs. There are hindrances to change, however, and research on low-energy-input farming is still developing. A broad approach is required, taking into consideration not only the farm production system but also the need to “sustain” society as a whole.
Plants that remove selenium from soils
by Gary Banuelos, Gerrit Schrale
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Some "accumulator plants" lowered selenium concentrations in the soil by up to 50% in greenhouse studies.
Initial results from greenhouse experiments suggest that some plants are able to lower selenium concentrations in soils by up to 50%. Use of these plant species to reduce concentrations to acceptable levels in problem soils on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley may be economically feasible.
Effect of fungicides on shot hole disease of almonds
by Beth L. Teviotdale, Mario Viveros, Mark W. Freeman, G. Steven Sibbett
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Several fungicides were effective against shot hole and improved yield when fungus diseases were prevalent.
Several registered fungicides evaluated over a 7-year period in the southern San Joaquin Valley controlled the disease on fruit. Captan, captatol, and ziram preceded by dormant copper provided the most consistent control. Fungicides protected against yield losses in a heavy-disease year but had no effect on yields when the disease was not prevalent.
Foraging in Central Valley agricultural drainage areas
by Mark Campbell, L. Clair Christensen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A large number and variety of people fish, hunt, and gather plants for food or recreation in the drainage area.
For as long as there have been humans in the Central Valley grasslands, they have hunted, fished, and gathered plant or animal life for consumption. “Foraging” became a health concern with the evidence of selenium accumulation at Kesterson Reservoir. A survey suggests that a large number and variety of people forage. The amounts and frequency of consumption are probably not great enough to be a health hazard to any one person or group, but there is still some cause for concern.
Control of potassium deficiency syndrome in cotton by soil solarization
by William L. Weir, Richard H. Garber, James J. Stapleton, Reuben Felix-Gastelum, Roland J. Wakeman, James E. DeVay
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Solarization reduced the potassium defi-ciency-verticillium wilt complex of symptoms and improved lint yields.
Potassium-deficiency symptoms in cotton are widespread in California and become most apparent in leaves during heavy demand by developing bolls. Potassium fertilizers may reduce the problem, but the main cause may be pathogenic organisms in the soil. Soil solarization, which controls soilborne pathogens of cotton, also controls the potassium deficiency problem without appreciable changes in the availability of potassium to cotton roots.
Pistachio culls acceptable in livestock feed
by John L. Hull, John R. Dunbar, Edward J. DePeters, H. Rocky Teranishi, Neil K. McDougald
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Cattle and sheep appeared to accept whole cull nuts in rations without reduction in feed intake or gain.
Whole cull pistachio nuts appear to be acceptable to cattle and sheep as part of their daily rations. Research indicates that cattle can be fed up to 20% of the daily ration without refusal, but this may be too high for sheep.
Seasonal changes may cause vitamin A deficiency in range heifers
by James G. Morris, Teresa I. Iglesias, Myung-Hee Kang
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summer grazing provides inadequate vitamin A. Cows may not need a supplement, but heifers may.
Range cattle obtain vitamin A from carotenoids in green plants. In northern California's foothill ranges, carotenoids are destroyed as forage dries in the summer. Tests of liver and blood plasma in grazing cattle indicated that mature breeding cows can store enough vitamin A during the green season to meet later needs. Heifers on their first calf, however, may need vitamin A supplementation.
Effect of harvesting and handling on damage in canned kidney beans
by W. Mick Canevari, Robert G. Curley, Michael Murray, Clay Brooks, Gerald Knutson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Low bean moisture is the major factor in damage, and the primary sources are warehouse operations and threshing.
Kidney beans become very susceptible to mechanical damage at moisture levels below 11.5% to 12%. It is important, therefore, to harvest early at higher moisture and to minimize mechanical impact during threshing and warehousing operations.
SAW employment data and the need for RAWs
by Howard R. Rosenberg
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Lesser known provisions of the 1986 immigration law deal with replenishment agricultural workers (RAWs).
The 1986 immigration reform act allows “replenishment agricultural workers” to obtain legal resident status beginning October 1989, if farm labor shortages are projected. Federal agencies have to decide how many RAWs to admit and who they will be. Rules recently developed by the Departments of Labor, Agriculture, and Justice to generate data for these determinations hold great significance for employers, workers, and researchers.
Exotic fruit fly pests and California agriculture
by James R. Carey, Robert V. Dowell
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
It is nearly impossible to prevent introductions of the many fruit fly crop pests of worldwide distribution.
Because of their worldwide distribution and numbers, future introductions of fruit flies into California are inevitable. Infestations of economically important pests, including but not limited to the medfly, Mexican fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly, are expensive to treat, and their elimination is seldom certain. Researchers are seeking to improve detection and control methods.

Editorial, News, Letters and Science Briefs

Cooperative Extension: A tradition of investing in California's future
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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Email: calag@ucanr.edu | Phone: (510) 665-2163 | Fax: (510) 665-3427
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