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California Agriculture, Vol. 43, No.4

Intensive grazing on annual range
July-August 1989
Volume 43, Number 4

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Short-duration grazing on irrigated pasture
by Charles A. Raguse, Kenneth L. Taggard, John L. Hull, Cynthia A. Daley, John M. Connor
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
First-year results show forage height can be a usable stocking rate predictor. Heifer gains were well related to inches of forage removed.
First-year results are now available in a long-term study of the popular short-duration grazing system, also known as controlled or intensive grazing, under way at the UC Sierra Foothill Range Field Station. The 1988 experiment compared two grazing intensities in an eight-paddock rotation with 3-day grazing and 21-day forage regrowth intervals. A stocking rate predictor was developed based on plant height, and a close relationship was found between heifer weight gains per acre and amount of forage removed.
Financial information needs of California households
by Karen P. Varcoe, Carol Adams
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Survey responses suggest the greatest need is for help in developing financial plans that include savings.
Inability to save money and the use of savings for everyday expenses were the financial problems most often cited by respondents to a survey of California households. The preferred delivery method for receiving financial information was in-home study packets. The study findings have implications for future Cooperative Extension outreach programs.
Attitudes about oaks in Calaveras County
by John W. LeBlanc, Ken Churches, Richard B. Standiford, Robert Logan, Daniel Irving
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Landowners and most of the general public share many views on oak rangelands and their management.
County residents surveyed considered oak rangelands important as a natural resource, but opinions diverged concerning management of the resource. The survey provides baseline information against which future educational outreach programs can be measured.
Cyclamen mite control in strawberries
by Norman C. Welch, Carolyn Pickel, Douglas Walsh, Saskya Van Nouhuys
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
In four Central Coast tests, abamectin provided equal or better control than that given by other acaricides.
In preliminary tests, the acaricide abamectin gave equal or better control of cyclamen mites compared with that provided by other materials currently used in Central Coast strawberries.
Vegetation management systems in almond orchards
by Clyde L. Elmore
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Many orchardists manage weeds between almond tree rows by mowing several times during the spring and summer. Others maintain planted cover crops, such as clover and bromegrass. These, and other vegetation management systems, have both advantages and disadvantages. The following reports summarize some of the results of a comprehensive vegetation management study in California's Central Valley. The researchers compare the effects of different systems on other aspects of almond orchard management.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Orchard floor management systems used in California almonds vary from planting cover crops between the tree rows to management of the existing ground cover or weeds in the orchard to removal of the vegetation on the soil surface. Cover crops, sometimes called living mulches, have been used in orchards for many years. Many orchardists have successfully converted their weed management practices from repeated disking to maintenance of the vegetation through mowing.
Plant composition of orchard floors
by Clyde L. Elmore, Wesley K. Asai, Lonnie C. Hendricks, Rachel B. Elkins
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Vegetation on orchard floors varies considerably among orchards and growing regions. Weed populations also vary within orchards. The complex of species includes many winter and summer annual plants and often some perennials. Numbers range in any given orchard from a few species (10 to 12) to more than 20.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Vegetation on orchard floors varies considerably among orchards and growing regions. Weed populations also vary within orchards. The complex of species includes many winter and summer annual plants and often some perennials. Numbers range in any given orchard from a few species (10 to 12) to more than 20.
Management of navel orangeworm and ants
by William W. Barnett, Lonnie C. Hendricks, Wesley K. Asai, Rachel B. Elkins, Debra Boquist, Clyde L. Elmore
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Orchard cover crops are generally thought to be beneficial in the management of pests, especially certain insects and mites. Depending on how they are manipulated, however, cover crops have the potential to increase damage from some pests. If cover crops are not managed correctly-for example, are mowed at the wrong time or are under stress for moisture-plant-feeding insects may move from the orchard floor into the trees to feed on developing fruit.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Orchard cover crops are generally thought to be beneficial in the management of pests, especially certain insects and mites. Depending on how they are manipulated, however, cover crops have the potential to increase damage from some pests. If cover crops are not managed correctly-for example, are mowed at the wrong time or are under stress for moisture-plant-feeding insects may move from the orchard floor into the trees to feed on developing fruit.
Orchard water use and soil characteristics
by Terry L. Prichard, Wynette M. Sills, Wesley K. Asai, Lonnie C. Hendricks, Clyde L. Elmore
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Selection of an orchard floor management system is based on several considerations, often including its potential effect on water use, water infiltration, and soil compaction. Information on these factors has been limited, however, because many previous studies have compared only a few treatments or have produced site-specific recommendations that did not consider differences in soil characteristics or orchard management.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Selection of an orchard floor management system is based on several considerations, often including its potential effect on water use, water infiltration, and soil compaction. Information on these factors has been limited, however, because many previous studies have compared only a few treatments or have produced site-specific recommendations that did not consider differences in soil characteristics or orchard management.
Almond orchard floor management costs
by Karen Klonsky, Clyde L. Elmore
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: In selecting an orchard floor management system it is necessary to evaluate the costs of developing and maintaining the systems under consideration. We estimated sample costs for the five systems studied as treatments of the centers between the tree rows - Blando bromegrass, Salina strawberry clover, resident vegetation, residual herbicide, and chemical mow, as described in the introductory article.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: In selecting an orchard floor management system it is necessary to evaluate the costs of developing and maintaining the systems under consideration. We estimated sample costs for the five systems studied as treatments of the centers between the tree rows - Blando bromegrass, Salina strawberry clover, resident vegetation, residual herbicide, and chemical mow, as described in the introductory article.
Rootstock effects on wine grapes
by John H. Foott, Cornelius S. Ough, James A. Wolpert
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Phylloxera-resistant rootstocks tested affected Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay growth, yield, and wine quality.
Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties were grafted onto phylloxera-resistant rootstocks in a vineyard not yet infested with the insect in the south central coastal region. Rootstocks influenced growth and yield, as well as composition and quality of juice and wine, but a major consideration would be phylloxera resistance.
Dodder control in alfalfa
by Steve B. Orloff, Ronald N. Vargas, David W. Cudney, W. Michael Canevari, Jerry Schmierer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Dinitroaniline herbicides gave good early season control. Extended control was possible at higher rates tested.
Extended dodder control was achieved with pre-emergence applications of dinitroaniline herbicides, in either a single 4-pound application or a split application of 2 + 2 pounds. Of the herbicides studied, prodiamine was the most persistent.

News and opinion

Food safety: Finding a path to resolution
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 43, No.4

Intensive grazing on annual range
July-August 1989
Volume 43, Number 4

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Short-duration grazing on irrigated pasture
by Charles A. Raguse, Kenneth L. Taggard, John L. Hull, Cynthia A. Daley, John M. Connor
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
First-year results show forage height can be a usable stocking rate predictor. Heifer gains were well related to inches of forage removed.
First-year results are now available in a long-term study of the popular short-duration grazing system, also known as controlled or intensive grazing, under way at the UC Sierra Foothill Range Field Station. The 1988 experiment compared two grazing intensities in an eight-paddock rotation with 3-day grazing and 21-day forage regrowth intervals. A stocking rate predictor was developed based on plant height, and a close relationship was found between heifer weight gains per acre and amount of forage removed.
Financial information needs of California households
by Karen P. Varcoe, Carol Adams
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Survey responses suggest the greatest need is for help in developing financial plans that include savings.
Inability to save money and the use of savings for everyday expenses were the financial problems most often cited by respondents to a survey of California households. The preferred delivery method for receiving financial information was in-home study packets. The study findings have implications for future Cooperative Extension outreach programs.
Attitudes about oaks in Calaveras County
by John W. LeBlanc, Ken Churches, Richard B. Standiford, Robert Logan, Daniel Irving
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Landowners and most of the general public share many views on oak rangelands and their management.
County residents surveyed considered oak rangelands important as a natural resource, but opinions diverged concerning management of the resource. The survey provides baseline information against which future educational outreach programs can be measured.
Cyclamen mite control in strawberries
by Norman C. Welch, Carolyn Pickel, Douglas Walsh, Saskya Van Nouhuys
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
In four Central Coast tests, abamectin provided equal or better control than that given by other acaricides.
In preliminary tests, the acaricide abamectin gave equal or better control of cyclamen mites compared with that provided by other materials currently used in Central Coast strawberries.
Vegetation management systems in almond orchards
by Clyde L. Elmore
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Many orchardists manage weeds between almond tree rows by mowing several times during the spring and summer. Others maintain planted cover crops, such as clover and bromegrass. These, and other vegetation management systems, have both advantages and disadvantages. The following reports summarize some of the results of a comprehensive vegetation management study in California's Central Valley. The researchers compare the effects of different systems on other aspects of almond orchard management.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Orchard floor management systems used in California almonds vary from planting cover crops between the tree rows to management of the existing ground cover or weeds in the orchard to removal of the vegetation on the soil surface. Cover crops, sometimes called living mulches, have been used in orchards for many years. Many orchardists have successfully converted their weed management practices from repeated disking to maintenance of the vegetation through mowing.
Plant composition of orchard floors
by Clyde L. Elmore, Wesley K. Asai, Lonnie C. Hendricks, Rachel B. Elkins
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Vegetation on orchard floors varies considerably among orchards and growing regions. Weed populations also vary within orchards. The complex of species includes many winter and summer annual plants and often some perennials. Numbers range in any given orchard from a few species (10 to 12) to more than 20.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Vegetation on orchard floors varies considerably among orchards and growing regions. Weed populations also vary within orchards. The complex of species includes many winter and summer annual plants and often some perennials. Numbers range in any given orchard from a few species (10 to 12) to more than 20.
Management of navel orangeworm and ants
by William W. Barnett, Lonnie C. Hendricks, Wesley K. Asai, Rachel B. Elkins, Debra Boquist, Clyde L. Elmore
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Orchard cover crops are generally thought to be beneficial in the management of pests, especially certain insects and mites. Depending on how they are manipulated, however, cover crops have the potential to increase damage from some pests. If cover crops are not managed correctly-for example, are mowed at the wrong time or are under stress for moisture-plant-feeding insects may move from the orchard floor into the trees to feed on developing fruit.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Orchard cover crops are generally thought to be beneficial in the management of pests, especially certain insects and mites. Depending on how they are manipulated, however, cover crops have the potential to increase damage from some pests. If cover crops are not managed correctly-for example, are mowed at the wrong time or are under stress for moisture-plant-feeding insects may move from the orchard floor into the trees to feed on developing fruit.
Orchard water use and soil characteristics
by Terry L. Prichard, Wynette M. Sills, Wesley K. Asai, Lonnie C. Hendricks, Clyde L. Elmore
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Selection of an orchard floor management system is based on several considerations, often including its potential effect on water use, water infiltration, and soil compaction. Information on these factors has been limited, however, because many previous studies have compared only a few treatments or have produced site-specific recommendations that did not consider differences in soil characteristics or orchard management.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Selection of an orchard floor management system is based on several considerations, often including its potential effect on water use, water infiltration, and soil compaction. Information on these factors has been limited, however, because many previous studies have compared only a few treatments or have produced site-specific recommendations that did not consider differences in soil characteristics or orchard management.
Almond orchard floor management costs
by Karen Klonsky, Clyde L. Elmore
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: In selecting an orchard floor management system it is necessary to evaluate the costs of developing and maintaining the systems under consideration. We estimated sample costs for the five systems studied as treatments of the centers between the tree rows - Blando bromegrass, Salina strawberry clover, resident vegetation, residual herbicide, and chemical mow, as described in the introductory article.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: In selecting an orchard floor management system it is necessary to evaluate the costs of developing and maintaining the systems under consideration. We estimated sample costs for the five systems studied as treatments of the centers between the tree rows - Blando bromegrass, Salina strawberry clover, resident vegetation, residual herbicide, and chemical mow, as described in the introductory article.
Rootstock effects on wine grapes
by John H. Foott, Cornelius S. Ough, James A. Wolpert
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Phylloxera-resistant rootstocks tested affected Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay growth, yield, and wine quality.
Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties were grafted onto phylloxera-resistant rootstocks in a vineyard not yet infested with the insect in the south central coastal region. Rootstocks influenced growth and yield, as well as composition and quality of juice and wine, but a major consideration would be phylloxera resistance.
Dodder control in alfalfa
by Steve B. Orloff, Ronald N. Vargas, David W. Cudney, W. Michael Canevari, Jerry Schmierer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Dinitroaniline herbicides gave good early season control. Extended control was possible at higher rates tested.
Extended dodder control was achieved with pre-emergence applications of dinitroaniline herbicides, in either a single 4-pound application or a split application of 2 + 2 pounds. Of the herbicides studied, prodiamine was the most persistent.

News and opinion

Food safety: Finding a path to resolution
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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