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California Agriculture, Vol. 65, No.3

Food as medicine: Can what we eat help cure what ails us?
Cover:  Biofactors in foods — such as isoflavones in soy, omega-3 fatty acids in fish, antioxidants in produce and hydroxytyrosol in olive oil — may play a critical role in reducing the risk and symptoms of chronic illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes and kidney disease. Photo: Rita Maas, Getty Images
July-September 2011
Volume 65, Number 3

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Dietary omega-3 fatty acids aid in the modulation of inflammation and metabolic health
by Angela M. Zivkovic, Natalie Telis, J. Bruce German, Bruce D. Hammock
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
In a unique study, metabolic markers of systemic inflammation were higher in kidney disease patients.
This article focuses on the role of omega-3 fatty acids as precursors for lipid signaling molecules known as oxylipins. Although omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases and heart disease, they are generally underrepresented in the American diet. A literature review confirms that the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids — whether in food sources such as walnuts, flax seeds and fatty fish (including salmon and sardines), or in supplements — is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. This growing body of evidence, including the results of a recent study of patients with kidney disease, highlights the need to measure omega-3 fatty acids and their oxylipin products as markers of metabolic health and biomarkers of disease. In addition, there is substantial evidence of the need to increase the omega-3 fatty acid content of American diets to optimize metabolic health.
Asthma patients with specific genotypes identified for fish oil treatment trial
by Hooman Allayee, Cristina Davis, Olga Fortenko, Nicholas J. Kenyon, Gertrud Schuster, Charles Stephensen, Amir Zeki
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Identifying people genetically predisposed to particular asthma responses could aid in the development of personalized medicine for asthma.
The lifetime prevalence of asthma in California is nearly 20%, and better therapies are needed to manage this common chronic disease. Fish oils containing omega-3 fatty acids are considered a potential therapy for asthma and other inflammatory diseases. Fish oil inhibits the production of arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), an enzyme that exacerbates the lung inflammation that causes asthma. We discuss the genetics of asthma and our preliminary results using a strategy to identify the subgroup of patients who may respond well to treatment with fish oil. These findings, and others, suggest that certain gene polymorphisms of the ALOX5 gene predispose patients to the increased production of inflammatory leukotrienes. Our clinical trials will test the hypothesis that patients with moderate to severe asthma, and with specific high-risk ALOX5 gene sequence variations, will have fewer asthma symptoms when treated with fish oil. The strategy is to decrease the total burden of leukotriene production by supplementing with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. These studies will also help determine whether genotyping or metabolic profiling (for example, with exhaled breath condensate) can help establish “personalized medicine” for asthma.
Soy may help protect against cardiovascular disease
by Emily R. Cena, Francene M. Steinberg
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Soy protein provides isoflavones, which may lower heart disease risk by reducing cholesterol, increasing antioxidants and regulating genes.
Diet and lifestyle choices are major factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is responsible for more deaths in the United States than any other cause. One dietary component that has received considerable attention for its potential cardioprotective effects is soybeans, which contain lean vegetable protein, dietary fiber and bioactive compounds known as isoflavones. Recent research investigating the relationship between soy and cardiovascular disease has identified several potential mechanisms for the observed protective effects, including cholesterol-lowering properties, antioxidant activity and gene regulation. This review highlights current understanding of the complex relationship between soy and the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Proper nutrition can prevent negative health outcomes in young female athletes
by Michelle T. Barrack, Marta D. Van Loan
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Some competitive athletes may suffer disproportionately from low bone mass, eating disorders and menstrual irregularities.
Since the onset of Title IX, opportunities have dramatically increased for female athletes, largely to their benefit. However, some negative health outcomes such as disordered eating, chronic menstrual disturbances and low bone mass have been associated with high-level competition among some female athletes, particularly in sports such as gymnastics and cross-country running, where a slender physique or lean body build is important. Adolescent female athletes, in a rapid growth and development phase, may be at greatest risk. We sought to identify athletes at risk, understand the origin of possible negative outcomes and recommend behavioral modifications that promote participation in competitive sports while supporting lifetime health. This review discusses the development and impact of disordered eating and menstrual dysfunction on bone mass in young, competitive, female athletes and provides nutrition recommendations for their energy, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral intake.
Citrus can help prevent vitamin A deficiency in developing countries
by Betty J. Burri, Jasmine S. T. Chang, Tami Turner
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
More than half a million people die each year from vitamin A deficiency; citrus with high carotenoid concentrations could make a difference.
California is a major producer of tangerines and oranges, which contain carotenoids that form vitamin A. Deficiencies of this vitamin are common in southern Asia and Africa, causing blindness and more than one-half million deaths each year. We evaluated the potential of tangerines and oranges to prevent vitamin A deficiency worldwide by measuring their carotenoid concentrations, estimating the amounts needed to meet the recommended safe nutrient intake for vitamin A and determining their availability in countries with vitamin A deficiency. We conclude that tangerines — particularly Satsuma mandarins, which have high concentrations of the carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin — but not oranges, could be useful in preventing vitamin A deficiency, though not as the sole source.
Well-functioning cell mitochondria promote good health
by Winyoo Chowanadisai, Carl L. Keen, Jiankang Liu, Robert B. Rucker, Edward Sharman, Sonia F. Shenoy
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Nutrition plays a key role in optimizing mitochondrial function, which helps protect against heart disease, diabetes and other chronic illnesses.
Mitochondriol function can be directly linked to protection from certain chronic diseases and conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and chronic inflammation, as well as the aging processes. Mitochondria are central to normal glucose, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, in addition to antioxidant modulation and virtually all aspects of cell turnover and maintenance. Nutrition plays an essential role in optimizing such functions. We describe strategies for the regulation of mitochondria, as well as metabolic strategies for dealing with the thousands of compounds in plants and animal tissues that are metabolically important. Many of these compounds function to signal the up- or downregulation of mitochondria or act as antioxidants.
Biofactors in food promote health by enhancing mitochondrial function
by Sonia F. Shenoy, Winyoo Chowanadisai, Edward Sharman, Carl L. Keen, Jiankang Liu, Robert B. Rucker
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Plant components, such as resveratrol, flavonoids and quinones, can aid in preventing chronic diseases.
Mitochondrial function has been linked to protection from and symptom reduction in chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We review a number of phytochemicals and biofactors that influence mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism. These include resveratrol found in grapes; several plant-derived flavonoids (quercetin, epicatechin, catechin and procyanidins); and two tyrosine-derived quinones, hydroxytyrosol in olive oil and pyrroloquinoline quinone, a minor but ubiquitous component of plant and animal tissues. In plants, these biofactors serve as pigments, phytoalexins or growth factors. In animals, positive nutritional and physiological attributes have been established for each, particularly with respect to their ability to affect energy metabolism, cell signaling and mitochondrial function.
Blue oak stump sprouting evaluated after firewood harvest in northern Sacramento Valley
by Sheila Barry, Larry Forero, Douglas McCreary, Richard B. Standiford
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Models based on field studies help predict resprouting and growth rates, to aid in assessing oak regeneration.
Colifornia's hardwood rangelands, an oak-dominated woodland system, cover 10 million acres. More than 80% of these lands are privately owned, with two-thirds grazed by domestic livestock. Public concerns about long-term damage to habitat in areas harvested for firewood — particularly in the northern Sacramento Valley — led to this study of resprouting, to assess long-term trends in oak cover following harvesting and the potential of sprout (coppice) management to sustain woodlands. In field surveys on 103 sample plots at 19 ranches where oak firewood was harvested, we found that 54% of all oak stumps resprouted. Stump diameter, herbicide application, overstory crown cover percentage, and slope and aspect were significant variables in models developed to assess the probability of stump sprouting. Ten-year sprout height and crown growth models were developed, and livestock grazing, residual overstory canopy, herbicide treatment and stump diameter were found to be significant variables. These models can be used to predict stand development following firewood harvest and can be integrated with forage growth, wildlife habitat and residual tree growth models.
Low hybrid onion seed yields relate to honey bee visits and insecticide use
by Rachael F. Long, Lora Morandin
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Increased use of insecticides to control onion thrips may be causing the recent dramatic drop-off in yields.
Onion thrips, previously considered of minor importance to hybrid onion seed production in California, vector the newly introduced iris yellow spot virus, a serious pathogen of onions that can cause significant yield losses. Insecticide use to control onion thrips has increased in onion seed fields, coincident with a steep decrease in yields, especially in Colusa County. We examined a number of possible contributing factors and found a strong positive correlation between honey bee activity and onion seed set, indicating that a lack of pollination may be contributing to the reduced yields. In addition, honey bee visits to onion flowers were negatively correlated with the number of insecticides applied per field and field size. Reduced onion seed yields in recent years could be associated with the increase in insecticide use, which may be repelling or killing honey bees, important pollinators of this crop.

E-Edition

Transgenic rice evaluated for risks to marketability
by Dustin R. Mulvaney, Timothy J. Krupnik, Kaden B. Koffler
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The California Rice Certification Act aims to protect the state's rice from varieties that could damage sales to Asia, Europe and other regions.
The California Rice Certification Act mandates specific planting and handling protocols for rice varieties, including transgenic rice, that may pose economic risks to California rice growers. Based on a literature review and extensive interviews, we describe this policy's evolution as a system for identity preservation and explain how it shapes the potential commercialization of transgenic rice. Several studies suggest that transgenic rice would be profitable for California growers, but the challenges in assuring 100% identity preservation — especially when access to export markets is at risk — means that the commercial approval of transgenic rice in California is unlikely until there is widespread market acceptance and growers are assured of no sales interruptions.
Sidebar: Biosafety or trade barrier? Japan's tenuous trade with California
by Dustin R. Mulvaney, Timothy J. Krupnik, Kaden B. Koffler
Full text HTML  | PDF  
Switchgrass is a promising, high-yielding crop for California biofuel
by Gabriel M. Pedroso, Christopher De Ben, Robert B. Hutmacher, Steve Orloff, Dan Putnam, Johan Six, Chris van Kessel, Steven Wright, Bruce A. Linquist
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Ethanol use in California exceeds 1 billion gallons a year, almost all of it produced elsewhere; planting switchgrass might change that.
Ethanol use in California is expected to rise to 1.62 billion gallons per year in 2012, more than 90% of which will be trucked or shipped into the state. Switchgrass, a nonnative grass common in other states, has been identified as a possible high-yielding biomass crop for the production of cellulosic ethanol. The productivity of the two main ecotypes of switchgrass, lowland and upland, was evaluated under irrigated conditions across four diverse California ecozones — from Tulelake in the cool north to warm Imperial Valley in the south. In the first full year of production, the lowland varieties yielded up to 17 tons per acre of biomass, roughly double the biomass yields of California rice or maize. The yield response to nitrogen fertilization was statistically insignificant in the first year of production, except for in the Central Valley plots that were harvested twice a year. The biomass yields in our study indicate that switchgrass is a promising biofuel crop for California.
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California Agriculture, Vol. 65, No.3

Food as medicine: Can what we eat help cure what ails us?
Cover:  Biofactors in foods — such as isoflavones in soy, omega-3 fatty acids in fish, antioxidants in produce and hydroxytyrosol in olive oil — may play a critical role in reducing the risk and symptoms of chronic illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes and kidney disease. Photo: Rita Maas, Getty Images
July-September 2011
Volume 65, Number 3

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Dietary omega-3 fatty acids aid in the modulation of inflammation and metabolic health
by Angela M. Zivkovic, Natalie Telis, J. Bruce German, Bruce D. Hammock
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
In a unique study, metabolic markers of systemic inflammation were higher in kidney disease patients.
This article focuses on the role of omega-3 fatty acids as precursors for lipid signaling molecules known as oxylipins. Although omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases and heart disease, they are generally underrepresented in the American diet. A literature review confirms that the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids — whether in food sources such as walnuts, flax seeds and fatty fish (including salmon and sardines), or in supplements — is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. This growing body of evidence, including the results of a recent study of patients with kidney disease, highlights the need to measure omega-3 fatty acids and their oxylipin products as markers of metabolic health and biomarkers of disease. In addition, there is substantial evidence of the need to increase the omega-3 fatty acid content of American diets to optimize metabolic health.
Asthma patients with specific genotypes identified for fish oil treatment trial
by Hooman Allayee, Cristina Davis, Olga Fortenko, Nicholas J. Kenyon, Gertrud Schuster, Charles Stephensen, Amir Zeki
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Identifying people genetically predisposed to particular asthma responses could aid in the development of personalized medicine for asthma.
The lifetime prevalence of asthma in California is nearly 20%, and better therapies are needed to manage this common chronic disease. Fish oils containing omega-3 fatty acids are considered a potential therapy for asthma and other inflammatory diseases. Fish oil inhibits the production of arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), an enzyme that exacerbates the lung inflammation that causes asthma. We discuss the genetics of asthma and our preliminary results using a strategy to identify the subgroup of patients who may respond well to treatment with fish oil. These findings, and others, suggest that certain gene polymorphisms of the ALOX5 gene predispose patients to the increased production of inflammatory leukotrienes. Our clinical trials will test the hypothesis that patients with moderate to severe asthma, and with specific high-risk ALOX5 gene sequence variations, will have fewer asthma symptoms when treated with fish oil. The strategy is to decrease the total burden of leukotriene production by supplementing with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. These studies will also help determine whether genotyping or metabolic profiling (for example, with exhaled breath condensate) can help establish “personalized medicine” for asthma.
Soy may help protect against cardiovascular disease
by Emily R. Cena, Francene M. Steinberg
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Soy protein provides isoflavones, which may lower heart disease risk by reducing cholesterol, increasing antioxidants and regulating genes.
Diet and lifestyle choices are major factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is responsible for more deaths in the United States than any other cause. One dietary component that has received considerable attention for its potential cardioprotective effects is soybeans, which contain lean vegetable protein, dietary fiber and bioactive compounds known as isoflavones. Recent research investigating the relationship between soy and cardiovascular disease has identified several potential mechanisms for the observed protective effects, including cholesterol-lowering properties, antioxidant activity and gene regulation. This review highlights current understanding of the complex relationship between soy and the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Proper nutrition can prevent negative health outcomes in young female athletes
by Michelle T. Barrack, Marta D. Van Loan
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Some competitive athletes may suffer disproportionately from low bone mass, eating disorders and menstrual irregularities.
Since the onset of Title IX, opportunities have dramatically increased for female athletes, largely to their benefit. However, some negative health outcomes such as disordered eating, chronic menstrual disturbances and low bone mass have been associated with high-level competition among some female athletes, particularly in sports such as gymnastics and cross-country running, where a slender physique or lean body build is important. Adolescent female athletes, in a rapid growth and development phase, may be at greatest risk. We sought to identify athletes at risk, understand the origin of possible negative outcomes and recommend behavioral modifications that promote participation in competitive sports while supporting lifetime health. This review discusses the development and impact of disordered eating and menstrual dysfunction on bone mass in young, competitive, female athletes and provides nutrition recommendations for their energy, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral intake.
Citrus can help prevent vitamin A deficiency in developing countries
by Betty J. Burri, Jasmine S. T. Chang, Tami Turner
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
More than half a million people die each year from vitamin A deficiency; citrus with high carotenoid concentrations could make a difference.
California is a major producer of tangerines and oranges, which contain carotenoids that form vitamin A. Deficiencies of this vitamin are common in southern Asia and Africa, causing blindness and more than one-half million deaths each year. We evaluated the potential of tangerines and oranges to prevent vitamin A deficiency worldwide by measuring their carotenoid concentrations, estimating the amounts needed to meet the recommended safe nutrient intake for vitamin A and determining their availability in countries with vitamin A deficiency. We conclude that tangerines — particularly Satsuma mandarins, which have high concentrations of the carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin — but not oranges, could be useful in preventing vitamin A deficiency, though not as the sole source.
Well-functioning cell mitochondria promote good health
by Winyoo Chowanadisai, Carl L. Keen, Jiankang Liu, Robert B. Rucker, Edward Sharman, Sonia F. Shenoy
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Nutrition plays a key role in optimizing mitochondrial function, which helps protect against heart disease, diabetes and other chronic illnesses.
Mitochondriol function can be directly linked to protection from certain chronic diseases and conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and chronic inflammation, as well as the aging processes. Mitochondria are central to normal glucose, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, in addition to antioxidant modulation and virtually all aspects of cell turnover and maintenance. Nutrition plays an essential role in optimizing such functions. We describe strategies for the regulation of mitochondria, as well as metabolic strategies for dealing with the thousands of compounds in plants and animal tissues that are metabolically important. Many of these compounds function to signal the up- or downregulation of mitochondria or act as antioxidants.
Biofactors in food promote health by enhancing mitochondrial function
by Sonia F. Shenoy, Winyoo Chowanadisai, Edward Sharman, Carl L. Keen, Jiankang Liu, Robert B. Rucker
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Plant components, such as resveratrol, flavonoids and quinones, can aid in preventing chronic diseases.
Mitochondrial function has been linked to protection from and symptom reduction in chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We review a number of phytochemicals and biofactors that influence mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism. These include resveratrol found in grapes; several plant-derived flavonoids (quercetin, epicatechin, catechin and procyanidins); and two tyrosine-derived quinones, hydroxytyrosol in olive oil and pyrroloquinoline quinone, a minor but ubiquitous component of plant and animal tissues. In plants, these biofactors serve as pigments, phytoalexins or growth factors. In animals, positive nutritional and physiological attributes have been established for each, particularly with respect to their ability to affect energy metabolism, cell signaling and mitochondrial function.
Blue oak stump sprouting evaluated after firewood harvest in northern Sacramento Valley
by Sheila Barry, Larry Forero, Douglas McCreary, Richard B. Standiford
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Models based on field studies help predict resprouting and growth rates, to aid in assessing oak regeneration.
Colifornia's hardwood rangelands, an oak-dominated woodland system, cover 10 million acres. More than 80% of these lands are privately owned, with two-thirds grazed by domestic livestock. Public concerns about long-term damage to habitat in areas harvested for firewood — particularly in the northern Sacramento Valley — led to this study of resprouting, to assess long-term trends in oak cover following harvesting and the potential of sprout (coppice) management to sustain woodlands. In field surveys on 103 sample plots at 19 ranches where oak firewood was harvested, we found that 54% of all oak stumps resprouted. Stump diameter, herbicide application, overstory crown cover percentage, and slope and aspect were significant variables in models developed to assess the probability of stump sprouting. Ten-year sprout height and crown growth models were developed, and livestock grazing, residual overstory canopy, herbicide treatment and stump diameter were found to be significant variables. These models can be used to predict stand development following firewood harvest and can be integrated with forage growth, wildlife habitat and residual tree growth models.
Low hybrid onion seed yields relate to honey bee visits and insecticide use
by Rachael F. Long, Lora Morandin
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Increased use of insecticides to control onion thrips may be causing the recent dramatic drop-off in yields.
Onion thrips, previously considered of minor importance to hybrid onion seed production in California, vector the newly introduced iris yellow spot virus, a serious pathogen of onions that can cause significant yield losses. Insecticide use to control onion thrips has increased in onion seed fields, coincident with a steep decrease in yields, especially in Colusa County. We examined a number of possible contributing factors and found a strong positive correlation between honey bee activity and onion seed set, indicating that a lack of pollination may be contributing to the reduced yields. In addition, honey bee visits to onion flowers were negatively correlated with the number of insecticides applied per field and field size. Reduced onion seed yields in recent years could be associated with the increase in insecticide use, which may be repelling or killing honey bees, important pollinators of this crop.

E-Edition

Transgenic rice evaluated for risks to marketability
by Dustin R. Mulvaney, Timothy J. Krupnik, Kaden B. Koffler
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The California Rice Certification Act aims to protect the state's rice from varieties that could damage sales to Asia, Europe and other regions.
The California Rice Certification Act mandates specific planting and handling protocols for rice varieties, including transgenic rice, that may pose economic risks to California rice growers. Based on a literature review and extensive interviews, we describe this policy's evolution as a system for identity preservation and explain how it shapes the potential commercialization of transgenic rice. Several studies suggest that transgenic rice would be profitable for California growers, but the challenges in assuring 100% identity preservation — especially when access to export markets is at risk — means that the commercial approval of transgenic rice in California is unlikely until there is widespread market acceptance and growers are assured of no sales interruptions.
Sidebar: Biosafety or trade barrier? Japan's tenuous trade with California
by Dustin R. Mulvaney, Timothy J. Krupnik, Kaden B. Koffler
Full text HTML  | PDF  
Switchgrass is a promising, high-yielding crop for California biofuel
by Gabriel M. Pedroso, Christopher De Ben, Robert B. Hutmacher, Steve Orloff, Dan Putnam, Johan Six, Chris van Kessel, Steven Wright, Bruce A. Linquist
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Ethanol use in California exceeds 1 billion gallons a year, almost all of it produced elsewhere; planting switchgrass might change that.
Ethanol use in California is expected to rise to 1.62 billion gallons per year in 2012, more than 90% of which will be trucked or shipped into the state. Switchgrass, a nonnative grass common in other states, has been identified as a possible high-yielding biomass crop for the production of cellulosic ethanol. The productivity of the two main ecotypes of switchgrass, lowland and upland, was evaluated under irrigated conditions across four diverse California ecozones — from Tulelake in the cool north to warm Imperial Valley in the south. In the first full year of production, the lowland varieties yielded up to 17 tons per acre of biomass, roughly double the biomass yields of California rice or maize. The yield response to nitrogen fertilization was statistically insignificant in the first year of production, except for in the Central Valley plots that were harvested twice a year. The biomass yields in our study indicate that switchgrass is a promising biofuel crop for California.

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