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California Agriculture, Vol. 46, No.1

Invasion forecast: the exotic pest threat
Cover:  Registered by a satellite sensor 35,000 kilometers above Earth, the red tones of the infrared image on the cover indicate reflectance by green, photosynthesizing plants. Such satellite images can be used to generate maps of vegetative cover, using a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). NDVI images help track and predict the spread of exotic pests. Photo and computer image courtesy of NASA AMes Research Center.
January-February 1992
Volume 46, Number 1

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

UC develops expanded agenda to combat exotic pests
by James M. Lyons
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
UC has recently established the Center for Pest Management Research and Extension.
UC has recently established the Center for Pest Management Research and Extension.
On the California border, exotic pests pose growing problem for California
by Robert V. Dowell, Conrad J. Krass
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Through pest exclusion, detection and eradication programs, the California Department of Food and Agriculture acts on its mandate to protect California from highly damaging exotic pests — whether of food, fiber, animals, or persons. However, increased rates of human travel and immigration into the state make importation of new exotic pests increasingly likely. Major pest threats are profiled.
Major pest threats are profiled, as are the CDFA's exclusion and eradication efforts.
Plant quarantines: domestic strategies yield to international policies
by Dorthea Zadig
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Domestic regulatory policies are changing in response to international trade.
Since 1875, quarantine laws have been enacted to protect domestic agriculture from foreign pests. Today, thanks to efficient agricultural production and swift commodity transport, California growers have access to widespread international markets. Domestic regulatory policies are no longer adequate and must yield to new and developing international regulatory policies. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is considering an initiative to harmonize plant quarantine regulations among nations. In addition, development of the “pest-free” zone concept has benefited both exporters and importers.
The Mediterranean fruit fly in California: taking stock
by James R. Carey
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The medfly has been captured in California 11 years since 1975, and probably poses a long-term threat.
Medflies have been captured in California 11 different years since 1975, and every year since 1986. Ten eradication programs have been mounted against this pest at a cost of over $150 million. While considerable scientific debate still exists on the nature of the medfly problem in the state, most agriculturalists agree that the problem is probably long-term. This paper provides a brief historical background of the medfly in the state, reviews existing control technologies and outlines future research needs and directions.
How Africanized honey bees will affect California agriculture
by Robert E. Page
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Within the next three years, Africanized honey bees are expected to invade Southern California.
Africanized honey bees are expected to invade Southern California within the next 3 years. How far they will spread and how they will affect the agriculture of this state are of great concern. This article discusses the origins, current status and expected impact of Africanized bees on California agriculture.
Ecological research: Long-term studies to gauge effects of invading bees
by Robbin W. Thorp, Gordon W. Frankie, John Barthell, David Gordon, Linda Newstrom, Terry Griswold, Justin Schmidt, Steve Thoenes
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Long-term studies have documented the ecological importance of native and introduced bees.
The expected invasion of the United States by Africanized honey bees has inspired long-term studies documenting the ecological importance of native and introduced bees. Baseline data are being gathered to predict the effects of the invasion. Standardized sampling procedures and tools have been developed to monitor bee communities. The studies will provide information for developing wildland area conservation policies.
Biological control of ash whitefly: a success in progress
by Tom S. Bellows, Timothy D. Paine, Juli R. Gould, Larry G. Bezark, Joe C. Ball, Walt Bentley, Richard Coviello, Jim Downer, Pam Elam, Don Flaherty, Patty Gouveia, Carl Koehler, Richard Molinar, Neil O'Connell, Ed Perry, Greg Vogel
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Two natural enemies of ash whitefly proved effective in Southern California field trials.
Two natural enemies of ash whitefly (Siphoninus phillyreae), jntroduced into California in 1990, proved effective in Southern California field trials, completely controlling this Dest in release sites within -24 months, Evaluations in release sites in Central and Northern California, Arizona and Nevada look equally promising.
Sweetpotato whitefly: prospects for biological control
by Michael P. Parrelta, Tom S. Bellows, Raymond J. Gill, Judith K. Brown, Kevin M. Heinz
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Origins of the current problem and potential biological control agents of the sweetpotato whitefly are discussed.
The damage to desert agricultural crops in Southern California and Arizona in fall-winter 1991 by the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is unprecedented in the history of the South west. Damage estimates exceed $200 million for California alone with the complete loss of the fall and winter melon crop and major damage to many winter vegetables and other crops. Origins of the problem, and potential biological control agents, are discussed.
Imported fire ants: potential risk to California
by Vernard R. Lewis, Laura D. Merrill, Thomas H. Atkinson, Joanne S. Wasbauer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Since 1987, 758 intercepts of fire ants at the state's border inspection stations have been reported.
Since the first general detection surveys for imported fire ants in California in 1987, 758 intercepts among the state's 16 border inspection stations have been recorded. One colony discovered at a nursery in Santa Barbara in 1988 was successfully eradicated. With more traffic expected into California, it is likely that interceptions and localized eradication efforts for imported fire ants will increase.
Russian wheat aphid: natural enemies, resistant wheat offer potential control
by D. González, Charles G. Summers, Calvin O. Qualset
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Coordinated UC research efforts are underway to manage this severe pest of small grains.
A severe pest of small grains, Russian wheat aphid has been spreading throughout all of California's cereal-growing regions for nearly 4 wears. Coordinated research to develop economically and environmentally acceptable management strategies for this pest is in progress.
“Organizational classes” explain differences among westside farms
by Mark B. Campbell, Ariel A. Dinar
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Five organization types were defined in this study of farms on the westside of the San Joaquin Valley.
Since the advent of industrialization, social theorists have been analyzing the complex relationships of industrial systems. At the same time, attention to agricultural production systems has waned. The fact that agricultural systems resemble early industrial systems suggests that farms might be studied using the same theories as those applied to industrial organization. That is, farms can be organized according to how they function. Farms which function similarly are said to belong to “organizational classes”. Types or classes of farms perform differently in the ease with which they can adopt to new technology or apply intensive agricultural practices. We used two organizational variables — task specialization and configuration — to distinguish among farm types on the westside of the San Joaquin Valley. Five organization types were defined and found to be significantly different with regard to several production variables including number of full-time and part-time workers, acres farmed and use of computers.
1991 Index
by Editors
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Articles appearing in California Agriculture, Volume 45, Numbers 1 through 6, January through December 1991.
Following are articles appearing in California Agriculture, Volume 45, Numbers 1 through 6, January through December 1991. Back issues may be purchased, while supplies last, at $2.00 per copy (make checks payable to UC Regents).

News and opinion

Exotic pest research well worth the price
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 46, No.1

Invasion forecast: the exotic pest threat
Cover:  Registered by a satellite sensor 35,000 kilometers above Earth, the red tones of the infrared image on the cover indicate reflectance by green, photosynthesizing plants. Such satellite images can be used to generate maps of vegetative cover, using a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). NDVI images help track and predict the spread of exotic pests. Photo and computer image courtesy of NASA AMes Research Center.
January-February 1992
Volume 46, Number 1

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

UC develops expanded agenda to combat exotic pests
by James M. Lyons
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
UC has recently established the Center for Pest Management Research and Extension.
UC has recently established the Center for Pest Management Research and Extension.
On the California border, exotic pests pose growing problem for California
by Robert V. Dowell, Conrad J. Krass
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Through pest exclusion, detection and eradication programs, the California Department of Food and Agriculture acts on its mandate to protect California from highly damaging exotic pests — whether of food, fiber, animals, or persons. However, increased rates of human travel and immigration into the state make importation of new exotic pests increasingly likely. Major pest threats are profiled.
Major pest threats are profiled, as are the CDFA's exclusion and eradication efforts.
Plant quarantines: domestic strategies yield to international policies
by Dorthea Zadig
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Domestic regulatory policies are changing in response to international trade.
Since 1875, quarantine laws have been enacted to protect domestic agriculture from foreign pests. Today, thanks to efficient agricultural production and swift commodity transport, California growers have access to widespread international markets. Domestic regulatory policies are no longer adequate and must yield to new and developing international regulatory policies. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is considering an initiative to harmonize plant quarantine regulations among nations. In addition, development of the “pest-free” zone concept has benefited both exporters and importers.
The Mediterranean fruit fly in California: taking stock
by James R. Carey
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The medfly has been captured in California 11 years since 1975, and probably poses a long-term threat.
Medflies have been captured in California 11 different years since 1975, and every year since 1986. Ten eradication programs have been mounted against this pest at a cost of over $150 million. While considerable scientific debate still exists on the nature of the medfly problem in the state, most agriculturalists agree that the problem is probably long-term. This paper provides a brief historical background of the medfly in the state, reviews existing control technologies and outlines future research needs and directions.
How Africanized honey bees will affect California agriculture
by Robert E. Page
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Within the next three years, Africanized honey bees are expected to invade Southern California.
Africanized honey bees are expected to invade Southern California within the next 3 years. How far they will spread and how they will affect the agriculture of this state are of great concern. This article discusses the origins, current status and expected impact of Africanized bees on California agriculture.
Ecological research: Long-term studies to gauge effects of invading bees
by Robbin W. Thorp, Gordon W. Frankie, John Barthell, David Gordon, Linda Newstrom, Terry Griswold, Justin Schmidt, Steve Thoenes
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Long-term studies have documented the ecological importance of native and introduced bees.
The expected invasion of the United States by Africanized honey bees has inspired long-term studies documenting the ecological importance of native and introduced bees. Baseline data are being gathered to predict the effects of the invasion. Standardized sampling procedures and tools have been developed to monitor bee communities. The studies will provide information for developing wildland area conservation policies.
Biological control of ash whitefly: a success in progress
by Tom S. Bellows, Timothy D. Paine, Juli R. Gould, Larry G. Bezark, Joe C. Ball, Walt Bentley, Richard Coviello, Jim Downer, Pam Elam, Don Flaherty, Patty Gouveia, Carl Koehler, Richard Molinar, Neil O'Connell, Ed Perry, Greg Vogel
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Two natural enemies of ash whitefly proved effective in Southern California field trials.
Two natural enemies of ash whitefly (Siphoninus phillyreae), jntroduced into California in 1990, proved effective in Southern California field trials, completely controlling this Dest in release sites within -24 months, Evaluations in release sites in Central and Northern California, Arizona and Nevada look equally promising.
Sweetpotato whitefly: prospects for biological control
by Michael P. Parrelta, Tom S. Bellows, Raymond J. Gill, Judith K. Brown, Kevin M. Heinz
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Origins of the current problem and potential biological control agents of the sweetpotato whitefly are discussed.
The damage to desert agricultural crops in Southern California and Arizona in fall-winter 1991 by the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is unprecedented in the history of the South west. Damage estimates exceed $200 million for California alone with the complete loss of the fall and winter melon crop and major damage to many winter vegetables and other crops. Origins of the problem, and potential biological control agents, are discussed.
Imported fire ants: potential risk to California
by Vernard R. Lewis, Laura D. Merrill, Thomas H. Atkinson, Joanne S. Wasbauer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Since 1987, 758 intercepts of fire ants at the state's border inspection stations have been reported.
Since the first general detection surveys for imported fire ants in California in 1987, 758 intercepts among the state's 16 border inspection stations have been recorded. One colony discovered at a nursery in Santa Barbara in 1988 was successfully eradicated. With more traffic expected into California, it is likely that interceptions and localized eradication efforts for imported fire ants will increase.
Russian wheat aphid: natural enemies, resistant wheat offer potential control
by D. González, Charles G. Summers, Calvin O. Qualset
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Coordinated UC research efforts are underway to manage this severe pest of small grains.
A severe pest of small grains, Russian wheat aphid has been spreading throughout all of California's cereal-growing regions for nearly 4 wears. Coordinated research to develop economically and environmentally acceptable management strategies for this pest is in progress.
“Organizational classes” explain differences among westside farms
by Mark B. Campbell, Ariel A. Dinar
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Five organization types were defined in this study of farms on the westside of the San Joaquin Valley.
Since the advent of industrialization, social theorists have been analyzing the complex relationships of industrial systems. At the same time, attention to agricultural production systems has waned. The fact that agricultural systems resemble early industrial systems suggests that farms might be studied using the same theories as those applied to industrial organization. That is, farms can be organized according to how they function. Farms which function similarly are said to belong to “organizational classes”. Types or classes of farms perform differently in the ease with which they can adopt to new technology or apply intensive agricultural practices. We used two organizational variables — task specialization and configuration — to distinguish among farm types on the westside of the San Joaquin Valley. Five organization types were defined and found to be significantly different with regard to several production variables including number of full-time and part-time workers, acres farmed and use of computers.
1991 Index
by Editors
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Articles appearing in California Agriculture, Volume 45, Numbers 1 through 6, January through December 1991.
Following are articles appearing in California Agriculture, Volume 45, Numbers 1 through 6, January through December 1991. Back issues may be purchased, while supplies last, at $2.00 per copy (make checks payable to UC Regents).

News and opinion

Exotic pest research well worth the price
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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