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California Agriculture, Vol. 43, No.1

Regenerating California's native oaks
January-February 1989
Volume 43, Number 1

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Regenerating native oaks in California
by Douglas D. McCreary
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Left to themselves, some of California's native oaks do not reproduce sufficiently to maintain dwindling stands. Given a little special care, however, as in this nursery setting at the Sierra Foothill Range Field Station, acorns sprout and grow quite well.
Livestock are frequently blamed for poor regeneration of native oaks in California, but research indicates that other factors are also involved. Conditions favoring natural regeneration may occur only once or twice a century. Artificial regeneration is a practical but currently costly alternative.
Drainage reduction potential of furrow irrigation
by Blaine R. Hanson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Existing systems can be upgraded to substantially reduce subsurface drainage of irrigation water.
The most practical way to dispose of irrigation drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley is to reduce the volume of the water at its source through better irrigation management. Upgrading furrow irrigation systems and cutting run lengths in problem areas reduced drainage 60% to 80%.
Biological control of black scale in olives
by Kent M. Daane, Leopoldo E. Caltagirone
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Cultural practices and weather affect biological control, which has had more success in the north than the south.
Cultural practices that improve biological control of black scale in olive orchards are more common in northern than southern California orchards. A parasite of black scale, recently imported from Spain, has become established in northern orchards and may in time aid in black scale control.
Garlic weed competition
by Harry S. Agamalian, Edward A. Kurtz
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Garlic held its own for the first 60 days, but weeds remaining after that reduced yields and bulb size.
If not controlled with chemicals or by costly hand removal, weeds can cut garlic yields in half and lower the quality of the crop. Field trials comparing chemical and hand removal showed that judicious use of selective herbicides combined with good cultural practices will achieve best results.
Glyphosate doesn't harm tall fescue
by A. James Downer, David W. Cudney
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Hydroseeding, not glyphosate residues, was apparently to blame for poor germination and performance in winter.
Reports that glyphosate, the active ingredient of a post-emergence broad-spectrum herbicide, may inhibit tall fescue germination when applied before seeding were not supported by field experiments. The method of seeding (hydroseeding or overseeding), however, may contribute to poor establishment.
Twig blight of oaks in California
by Eva I. Hecht-Poinar, Laurence R. Costello, J. R. Parmeter
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Acceptable control of the disease in landscape oaks was obtained by pruning and/or fungicide treatment.
Twig blight of landscape oak trees was reduced to an acceptable level by pruning or by pruning plus treatment with a fungicide.
Selecting for insecticide resistance in a California red scale parasitoid
by Jay A. Rosenheim, Marjorie A. Hoy, James Gorden, James R. Stewart
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A strain of Aphytis melinus selected for resistance to carbaryl may be useful in citrus IPM programs.
Natural insecticide resistance of a biological control agent of California red scale was augmented in the laboratory, suggesting that selected strains of the parasitoid, Aphytis melinus, may be able to survive in citrus groves sprayed with carbaryl.
Effects of tax reform on beef cattle operations
by Robert Innes, Hoy F. Carman
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The 1986 Tax Reform Act will increase record-keeping and will affect culling and replacement decisions.
A less attractive investment
Controlling seepage from evaporation ponds
by Mark E. Grismer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Subsurface drainlines below ponds could recover a large percentage of potential seepage losses.
Under soil conditions characteristic of the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, subsurface drainlines could recover as much as 90% of potential seepage losses from evaporation ponds.
Barley yellow dwarf of California cereals
by John A. Griesbach, Rebecca Creamer, Gale Lorens, Bryce W. Falk, Calvin O. Qualset, Lee F. Jackson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Researchers are hoping a better understanding of this complex disease will lead to effective controls.
Research on barley yellow dwarf disease in California small grains is designed to develop cultural controls and cultivars with improved resistance. Recent discovery of BYDV satellite RNA that inhibits replication of the virus offers additional hope of control.
The crisis in agricultural education
by Orville E. Thompson, Douglas Gwynn, Yoshio Kawamura
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Total agricultural enrollment has been stable, but California schools have lost students in production areas.
The number of undergraduate student majors in California four-year colleges of agriculture has remained stable but has dropped sharply nationwide. Subject areas in California schools that are not traditionally related to production agriculture have expanded.
Heat stress and copper supplementation in pigs
by Hubert Heitman, Stanton R. Morrison, Kent M. Parker
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Although heat stress affected pigs, it had no effect on their response to copper supplementation.
Controlled feeding trials at UC Davis found no connection between temperature stress and response to copper supplementation, but confirmed overall effects of heat stress on pigs.
The farmers of farmers' markets
by Suzanne Vaupel
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Contrary to popular belief, sellers at the markets represent all farm sizes and incomes, not just small farms.
Growers selling at Certified Farmers' Markets include both small and large commercial farms. Many sell at more than one market, traveling over 200 miles each way. Profit was the main reason.
Sprinkler spacing affects almond frost protection
by Joseph H. Connell, Richard L. Snyder
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The spacing common in many orchards is close enough to protect against mild frosts but not severe conditions.
The use of under-tree sprinklers for frost protection is an established practice but the specific mechanisms of the practice aren't well understood. This study of sprinkler spacing showed that best protection depends on placement of lines and air movement within the orchard.

News and Opinion

The value of international scientific exchange
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 43, No.1

Regenerating California's native oaks
January-February 1989
Volume 43, Number 1

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Regenerating native oaks in California
by Douglas D. McCreary
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Left to themselves, some of California's native oaks do not reproduce sufficiently to maintain dwindling stands. Given a little special care, however, as in this nursery setting at the Sierra Foothill Range Field Station, acorns sprout and grow quite well.
Livestock are frequently blamed for poor regeneration of native oaks in California, but research indicates that other factors are also involved. Conditions favoring natural regeneration may occur only once or twice a century. Artificial regeneration is a practical but currently costly alternative.
Drainage reduction potential of furrow irrigation
by Blaine R. Hanson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Existing systems can be upgraded to substantially reduce subsurface drainage of irrigation water.
The most practical way to dispose of irrigation drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley is to reduce the volume of the water at its source through better irrigation management. Upgrading furrow irrigation systems and cutting run lengths in problem areas reduced drainage 60% to 80%.
Biological control of black scale in olives
by Kent M. Daane, Leopoldo E. Caltagirone
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Cultural practices and weather affect biological control, which has had more success in the north than the south.
Cultural practices that improve biological control of black scale in olive orchards are more common in northern than southern California orchards. A parasite of black scale, recently imported from Spain, has become established in northern orchards and may in time aid in black scale control.
Garlic weed competition
by Harry S. Agamalian, Edward A. Kurtz
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Garlic held its own for the first 60 days, but weeds remaining after that reduced yields and bulb size.
If not controlled with chemicals or by costly hand removal, weeds can cut garlic yields in half and lower the quality of the crop. Field trials comparing chemical and hand removal showed that judicious use of selective herbicides combined with good cultural practices will achieve best results.
Glyphosate doesn't harm tall fescue
by A. James Downer, David W. Cudney
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Hydroseeding, not glyphosate residues, was apparently to blame for poor germination and performance in winter.
Reports that glyphosate, the active ingredient of a post-emergence broad-spectrum herbicide, may inhibit tall fescue germination when applied before seeding were not supported by field experiments. The method of seeding (hydroseeding or overseeding), however, may contribute to poor establishment.
Twig blight of oaks in California
by Eva I. Hecht-Poinar, Laurence R. Costello, J. R. Parmeter
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Acceptable control of the disease in landscape oaks was obtained by pruning and/or fungicide treatment.
Twig blight of landscape oak trees was reduced to an acceptable level by pruning or by pruning plus treatment with a fungicide.
Selecting for insecticide resistance in a California red scale parasitoid
by Jay A. Rosenheim, Marjorie A. Hoy, James Gorden, James R. Stewart
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A strain of Aphytis melinus selected for resistance to carbaryl may be useful in citrus IPM programs.
Natural insecticide resistance of a biological control agent of California red scale was augmented in the laboratory, suggesting that selected strains of the parasitoid, Aphytis melinus, may be able to survive in citrus groves sprayed with carbaryl.
Effects of tax reform on beef cattle operations
by Robert Innes, Hoy F. Carman
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The 1986 Tax Reform Act will increase record-keeping and will affect culling and replacement decisions.
A less attractive investment
Controlling seepage from evaporation ponds
by Mark E. Grismer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Subsurface drainlines below ponds could recover a large percentage of potential seepage losses.
Under soil conditions characteristic of the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, subsurface drainlines could recover as much as 90% of potential seepage losses from evaporation ponds.
Barley yellow dwarf of California cereals
by John A. Griesbach, Rebecca Creamer, Gale Lorens, Bryce W. Falk, Calvin O. Qualset, Lee F. Jackson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Researchers are hoping a better understanding of this complex disease will lead to effective controls.
Research on barley yellow dwarf disease in California small grains is designed to develop cultural controls and cultivars with improved resistance. Recent discovery of BYDV satellite RNA that inhibits replication of the virus offers additional hope of control.
The crisis in agricultural education
by Orville E. Thompson, Douglas Gwynn, Yoshio Kawamura
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Total agricultural enrollment has been stable, but California schools have lost students in production areas.
The number of undergraduate student majors in California four-year colleges of agriculture has remained stable but has dropped sharply nationwide. Subject areas in California schools that are not traditionally related to production agriculture have expanded.
Heat stress and copper supplementation in pigs
by Hubert Heitman, Stanton R. Morrison, Kent M. Parker
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Although heat stress affected pigs, it had no effect on their response to copper supplementation.
Controlled feeding trials at UC Davis found no connection between temperature stress and response to copper supplementation, but confirmed overall effects of heat stress on pigs.
The farmers of farmers' markets
by Suzanne Vaupel
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Contrary to popular belief, sellers at the markets represent all farm sizes and incomes, not just small farms.
Growers selling at Certified Farmers' Markets include both small and large commercial farms. Many sell at more than one market, traveling over 200 miles each way. Profit was the main reason.
Sprinkler spacing affects almond frost protection
by Joseph H. Connell, Richard L. Snyder
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The spacing common in many orchards is close enough to protect against mild frosts but not severe conditions.
The use of under-tree sprinklers for frost protection is an established practice but the specific mechanisms of the practice aren't well understood. This study of sprinkler spacing showed that best protection depends on placement of lines and air movement within the orchard.

News and Opinion

The value of international scientific exchange
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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