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California Agriculture, Vol. 27, No.3

Cover:  Cannery waste recycling site near Hollister, Sun Benito County: top photo from a U-2 flight at 65,000 ft.; center, normal aerial view; and bottom, ground level view of plots after planting to wheat.
March 1973
Volume 27, Number 3

Research articles

Fusarium wilt of spinach
by A. Greathead, S. Smith, R. Bardin, A. Magyarosy, W. C. Snyder
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: During the last few years Fusarium wilt of spinach, a disease new to Monterey County and California, has been observed. This disease was first suspected as the cause of severe losses in a 50-acre field adjoining the Salinas River, 4 miles south of Salinas, in 1967. In 1969 it was positively identified on a ranch in the Moss Landing area, where it caused almost complete loss of a summer spinach crop in a 10-acre field. The organism which incites the disease is Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: During the last few years Fusarium wilt of spinach, a disease new to Monterey County and California, has been observed. This disease was first suspected as the cause of severe losses in a 50-acre field adjoining the Salinas River, 4 miles south of Salinas, in 1967. In 1969 it was positively identified on a ranch in the Moss Landing area, where it caused almost complete loss of a summer spinach crop in a 10-acre field. The organism which incites the disease is Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae.
Birds of a cattle feedlot in the Southern California desert
by Timothy Lynch, Lloyd Tevis, Rodolfo Ruibal
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Direct economic losses caused by birds amounted to between $3.60 and $8.40 per day, or between $564 and $1,296 for the five winter months of this study involving a 20-acre desert feedlot occupied daily by between 10,000 and 12,000 head of cattle. The total ecological and environmental impact of the birds—including beneficial habits elsewhere at other times of the year—must be considered before control methods are undertaken.
Direct economic losses caused by birds amounted to between $3.60 and $8.40 per day, or between $564 and $1,296 for the five winter months of this study involving a 20-acre desert feedlot occupied daily by between 10,000 and 12,000 head of cattle. The total ecological and environmental impact of the birds—including beneficial habits elsewhere at other times of the year—must be considered before control methods are undertaken.
Soil recycling of cannery wastes
by A. D. Reed, W. E. Wildman, W. S. Seyman, R. S. Ayers, J. D. Prato, R. S. Rauschkolb
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: In 1969, concern for the environment and problems with existing methods of disposal of solid wastes from canneries led the Santa Clara County canning industry to investigate new approaches to waste disposal. In 1970 the local industry formed the Cooperative for Environmental Improvement (CEI) and, in conjunction with local government officials and farm advisors of Santa Clara and San Benito counties, developed the program now in use. The program utilizes the process of soil incorporation to achieve aerobic degradation of the cannery wastes. Plant nutrients released in the process become available for “;recycling” by subsequent plant growth.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: In 1969, concern for the environment and problems with existing methods of disposal of solid wastes from canneries led the Santa Clara County canning industry to investigate new approaches to waste disposal. In 1970 the local industry formed the Cooperative for Environmental Improvement (CEI) and, in conjunction with local government officials and farm advisors of Santa Clara and San Benito counties, developed the program now in use. The program utilizes the process of soil incorporation to achieve aerobic degradation of the cannery wastes. Plant nutrients released in the process become available for “recycling” by subsequent plant growth.
Mechanical harvesting raisin grapes … an evaluation of methods for severing fruiting canes
by Henry E. Studer, H. P. Olmo, Earl Rocca
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: The use of pneumatic shears in conjunction with the pruning sled concept resulted in maximum cane cutter productivity, but the overall productivity with the three-man crew was less than that demonstrated for the two-man crew using only pneumatic shears. The tests demonstrated that, in terms of overall crew productivity the use of pneumatic shears was definitely advantageous. However, purchase of a pneumatic pruning machine cannot be justified if used only for cane severing.
The use of pneumatic shears in conjunction with the pruning sled concept resulted in maximum cane cutter productivity, but the overall productivity with the three-man crew was less than that demonstrated for the two-man crew using only pneumatic shears. The tests demonstrated that, in terms of overall crew productivity the use of pneumatic shears was definitely advantageous. However, purchase of a pneumatic pruning machine cannot be justified if used only for cane severing.
Nursery spacing container-grown trees
by Richard W. Harris, Andrew T. Leiser, P. Lanny Neel, Dwight Long, Norman W. Stice, Richard G. Maire
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Increasing the spacing of container-grown trees increased trunk caliper and taper, but growth in height was less than those spaced can-to-can. At the closest spacings, the lower foliage was sparse, giving the trees a Ieggy appearance. Adequate spacing (about twice the can-to-can area) gave benefits of increased trunk caliper and taper, and fuller foliage with a minimum sacrifice in height.
Increasing the spacing of container-grown trees increased trunk caliper and taper, but growth in height was less than those spaced can-to-can. At the closest spacings, the lower foliage was sparse, giving the trees a Ieggy appearance. Adequate spacing (about twice the can-to-can area) gave benefits of increased trunk caliper and taper, and fuller foliage with a minimum sacrifice in height.

News and opinion

Lessons from mosquito research
by Charles H. Schaefer
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 27, No.3

Cover:  Cannery waste recycling site near Hollister, Sun Benito County: top photo from a U-2 flight at 65,000 ft.; center, normal aerial view; and bottom, ground level view of plots after planting to wheat.
March 1973
Volume 27, Number 3

Research articles

Fusarium wilt of spinach
by A. Greathead, S. Smith, R. Bardin, A. Magyarosy, W. C. Snyder
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: During the last few years Fusarium wilt of spinach, a disease new to Monterey County and California, has been observed. This disease was first suspected as the cause of severe losses in a 50-acre field adjoining the Salinas River, 4 miles south of Salinas, in 1967. In 1969 it was positively identified on a ranch in the Moss Landing area, where it caused almost complete loss of a summer spinach crop in a 10-acre field. The organism which incites the disease is Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: During the last few years Fusarium wilt of spinach, a disease new to Monterey County and California, has been observed. This disease was first suspected as the cause of severe losses in a 50-acre field adjoining the Salinas River, 4 miles south of Salinas, in 1967. In 1969 it was positively identified on a ranch in the Moss Landing area, where it caused almost complete loss of a summer spinach crop in a 10-acre field. The organism which incites the disease is Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae.
Birds of a cattle feedlot in the Southern California desert
by Timothy Lynch, Lloyd Tevis, Rodolfo Ruibal
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Direct economic losses caused by birds amounted to between $3.60 and $8.40 per day, or between $564 and $1,296 for the five winter months of this study involving a 20-acre desert feedlot occupied daily by between 10,000 and 12,000 head of cattle. The total ecological and environmental impact of the birds—including beneficial habits elsewhere at other times of the year—must be considered before control methods are undertaken.
Direct economic losses caused by birds amounted to between $3.60 and $8.40 per day, or between $564 and $1,296 for the five winter months of this study involving a 20-acre desert feedlot occupied daily by between 10,000 and 12,000 head of cattle. The total ecological and environmental impact of the birds—including beneficial habits elsewhere at other times of the year—must be considered before control methods are undertaken.
Soil recycling of cannery wastes
by A. D. Reed, W. E. Wildman, W. S. Seyman, R. S. Ayers, J. D. Prato, R. S. Rauschkolb
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: In 1969, concern for the environment and problems with existing methods of disposal of solid wastes from canneries led the Santa Clara County canning industry to investigate new approaches to waste disposal. In 1970 the local industry formed the Cooperative for Environmental Improvement (CEI) and, in conjunction with local government officials and farm advisors of Santa Clara and San Benito counties, developed the program now in use. The program utilizes the process of soil incorporation to achieve aerobic degradation of the cannery wastes. Plant nutrients released in the process become available for “;recycling” by subsequent plant growth.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: In 1969, concern for the environment and problems with existing methods of disposal of solid wastes from canneries led the Santa Clara County canning industry to investigate new approaches to waste disposal. In 1970 the local industry formed the Cooperative for Environmental Improvement (CEI) and, in conjunction with local government officials and farm advisors of Santa Clara and San Benito counties, developed the program now in use. The program utilizes the process of soil incorporation to achieve aerobic degradation of the cannery wastes. Plant nutrients released in the process become available for “recycling” by subsequent plant growth.
Mechanical harvesting raisin grapes … an evaluation of methods for severing fruiting canes
by Henry E. Studer, H. P. Olmo, Earl Rocca
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: The use of pneumatic shears in conjunction with the pruning sled concept resulted in maximum cane cutter productivity, but the overall productivity with the three-man crew was less than that demonstrated for the two-man crew using only pneumatic shears. The tests demonstrated that, in terms of overall crew productivity the use of pneumatic shears was definitely advantageous. However, purchase of a pneumatic pruning machine cannot be justified if used only for cane severing.
The use of pneumatic shears in conjunction with the pruning sled concept resulted in maximum cane cutter productivity, but the overall productivity with the three-man crew was less than that demonstrated for the two-man crew using only pneumatic shears. The tests demonstrated that, in terms of overall crew productivity the use of pneumatic shears was definitely advantageous. However, purchase of a pneumatic pruning machine cannot be justified if used only for cane severing.
Nursery spacing container-grown trees
by Richard W. Harris, Andrew T. Leiser, P. Lanny Neel, Dwight Long, Norman W. Stice, Richard G. Maire
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Increasing the spacing of container-grown trees increased trunk caliper and taper, but growth in height was less than those spaced can-to-can. At the closest spacings, the lower foliage was sparse, giving the trees a Ieggy appearance. Adequate spacing (about twice the can-to-can area) gave benefits of increased trunk caliper and taper, and fuller foliage with a minimum sacrifice in height.
Increasing the spacing of container-grown trees increased trunk caliper and taper, but growth in height was less than those spaced can-to-can. At the closest spacings, the lower foliage was sparse, giving the trees a Ieggy appearance. Adequate spacing (about twice the can-to-can area) gave benefits of increased trunk caliper and taper, and fuller foliage with a minimum sacrifice in height.

News and opinion

Lessons from mosquito research
by Charles H. Schaefer
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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