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California Agriculture, Vol. 26, No.5

Sex pheromone traps aid in determining need for coddling moth control in apples and pears.
May 1972
Volume 26, Number 5

Research articles

Ethephon response favorable on fresh market tomatoes… pre-and postharvest studies show earlier production and more uniform ripening
by William L. Sims, Robert F. Kasmire
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Previous studies of both processing and fresh market tomatoes have shown the plant regulator, Ethrel—Amchem Products, Inc. brand name for plant regulators containing ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid]—to produce earlier and more uniform ripening when applied either to the foliage of the plant or the harvested mature green fruit. Recently, two new fresh market tomato varieties for machine harvest, Pakmor and Calmart, were released by the University of California. Both varieties have a medium small size determinate-type vine with a concentrated fruit set and large fruits. Pakmor matures seven to 10 days earlier than Calmart and has a green shoulder when the fruit is unripe, as compared with the uniform green color of the Calmart.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Previous studies of both processing and fresh market tomatoes have shown the plant regulator, Ethrel—Amchem Products, Inc. brand name for plant regulators containing ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid]—to produce earlier and more uniform ripening when applied either to the foliage of the plant or the harvested mature green fruit. Recently, two new fresh market tomato varieties for machine harvest, Pakmor and Calmart, were released by the University of California. Both varieties have a medium small size determinate-type vine with a concentrated fruit set and large fruits. Pakmor matures seven to 10 days earlier than Calmart and has a green shoulder when the fruit is unripe, as compared with the uniform green color of the Calmart.
Maximizing income above feed costs with computer-formulated dairy rations
by D. L. Bath, G. A. Hutton, E. H. Olson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Feeding trials were conducted to test a computer program designed to formulate rations resulting in maximum income above feed costs from lactating dairy cows. Factors considered by the computer include feed prices, milk prices, milk production response to varying levels of nutrients, maximum voluntary feed intake, and productive ability of the cow. Cows fed the computer-formulated rations returned $15 to $21 more income above feed costs per year than cows fed control rations.
Feeding trials were conducted to test a computer program designed to formulate rations resulting in maximum income above feed costs from lactating dairy cows. Factors considered by the computer include feed prices, milk prices, milk production response to varying levels of nutrients, maximum voluntary feed intake, and productive ability of the cow. Cows fed the computer-formulated rations returned $15 to $21 more income above feed costs per year than cows fed control rations.
Effects of preharvest applications of ethephon on maturation and quality of calmyrna figs
by Marvin Gerdts, Gary Obenauf
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Applications of ethephon at rates from 300 to 500 ppm, applied when most of the basal figs had turned yellow, resulted in an earlier and more compact maturity period, without adverse effects to the crop. Earlier maturity in turn insured improvement of external and internal fig quality, without decreasing individual fruit weights. Ethephon is not registered for use on figs and is not recommended for use at this time by the University of California.
Applications of ethephon at rates from 300 to 500 ppm, applied when most of the basal figs had turned yellow, resulted in an earlier and more compact maturity period, without adverse effects to the crop. Earlier maturity in turn insured improvement of external and internal fig quality, without decreasing individual fruit weights. Ethephon is not registered for use on figs and is not recommended for use at this time by the University of California.
Sex pheromone traps determine need for codling moth control in apple and pear orchards
by Richard S. Bethell, Louis A. Falcon, William C. Batiste, Gordon W. Morehead, Edio P. Delfino
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: For several decades growers of pears and apples in California have controlled the codling moth by coating the fruit with chemical insecticides from petal fall through harvest. This preventive approach was necessary because growers lacked effective methods for determining codling moth activity and abundance in their orchards. While this approach has provided effective control, repeated applications of heavy dosages of broad-spectrum, persistent chemical insecticides have been expensive and disruptive to the environment. Beneficial organisms are destroyed which help regulate the abundance of other pests such as spider mites, aphids, and pear psylla. Released from their natural enemies, these pests frequently reach damaging levels, requiring additional pesticide treatments for their control.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: For several decades growers of pears and apples in California have controlled the codling moth by coating the fruit with chemical insecticides from petal fall through harvest. This preventive approach was necessary because growers lacked effective methods for determining codling moth activity and abundance in their orchards. While this approach has provided effective control, repeated applications of heavy dosages of broad-spectrum, persistent chemical insecticides have been expensive and disruptive to the environment. Beneficial organisms are destroyed which help regulate the abundance of other pests such as spider mites, aphids, and pear psylla. Released from their natural enemies, these pests frequently reach damaging levels, requiring additional pesticide treatments for their control.
Herbicide residues—broadcast vs. banding
by B. Fischer, A. Lange
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Broadcast applications of herbicides on several crops generally produced fewer residual effects than herbicides banded in the Panoche clay loam soil of the San Joaquin Valley test sites.
Broadcast applications of herbicides on several crops generally produced fewer residual effects than herbicides banded in the Panoche clay loam soil of the San Joaquin Valley test sites.
Manure holding ponds found self-sealing
by J. L. Meyer, Earl Olson, Dwight Baier
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Waste ponds can be utilized to economically handle dairy and poultry waste waters. Usually the effluent from the ponds is used later for irrigation. Sometimes the effluent is recycled by reusing it for subsequent flushing. Whatever the mode of operation of the ponds, it is important to know how much, if any, deep percolation occurs; what is the fate of nitrogenous substances; what are the changes in other chemical constituents; and what bacterial processes occur in the ponds. This report outlines some preliminary findings in a study of operation of waste ponds, and delineates subsequent necessary research to evaluate their total impact on the environment. The most significant of these preliminary findings was that there was hardly any seepage of water from manure-laden ponds in this study, and that artificial seals were not needed under these soil conditions.
Waste ponds can be utilized to economically handle dairy and poultry waste waters. Usually the effluent from the ponds is used later for irrigation. Sometimes the effluent is recycled by reusing it for subsequent flushing. Whatever the mode of operation of the ponds, it is important to know how much, if any, deep percolation occurs; what is the fate of nitrogenous substances; what are the changes in other chemical constituents; and what bacterial processes occur in the ponds. This report outlines some preliminary findings in a study of operation of waste ponds, and delineates subsequent necessary research to evaluate their total impact on the environment. The most significant of these preliminary findings was that there was hardly any seepage of water from manure-laden ponds in this study, and that artificial seals were not needed under these soil conditions.

Editorial, News, Letters and Science Briefs

An awakening resource
by Richard D. Teague
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 26, No.5

Sex pheromone traps aid in determining need for coddling moth control in apples and pears.
May 1972
Volume 26, Number 5

Research articles

Ethephon response favorable on fresh market tomatoes… pre-and postharvest studies show earlier production and more uniform ripening
by William L. Sims, Robert F. Kasmire
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Previous studies of both processing and fresh market tomatoes have shown the plant regulator, Ethrel—Amchem Products, Inc. brand name for plant regulators containing ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid]—to produce earlier and more uniform ripening when applied either to the foliage of the plant or the harvested mature green fruit. Recently, two new fresh market tomato varieties for machine harvest, Pakmor and Calmart, were released by the University of California. Both varieties have a medium small size determinate-type vine with a concentrated fruit set and large fruits. Pakmor matures seven to 10 days earlier than Calmart and has a green shoulder when the fruit is unripe, as compared with the uniform green color of the Calmart.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Previous studies of both processing and fresh market tomatoes have shown the plant regulator, Ethrel—Amchem Products, Inc. brand name for plant regulators containing ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid]—to produce earlier and more uniform ripening when applied either to the foliage of the plant or the harvested mature green fruit. Recently, two new fresh market tomato varieties for machine harvest, Pakmor and Calmart, were released by the University of California. Both varieties have a medium small size determinate-type vine with a concentrated fruit set and large fruits. Pakmor matures seven to 10 days earlier than Calmart and has a green shoulder when the fruit is unripe, as compared with the uniform green color of the Calmart.
Maximizing income above feed costs with computer-formulated dairy rations
by D. L. Bath, G. A. Hutton, E. H. Olson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Feeding trials were conducted to test a computer program designed to formulate rations resulting in maximum income above feed costs from lactating dairy cows. Factors considered by the computer include feed prices, milk prices, milk production response to varying levels of nutrients, maximum voluntary feed intake, and productive ability of the cow. Cows fed the computer-formulated rations returned $15 to $21 more income above feed costs per year than cows fed control rations.
Feeding trials were conducted to test a computer program designed to formulate rations resulting in maximum income above feed costs from lactating dairy cows. Factors considered by the computer include feed prices, milk prices, milk production response to varying levels of nutrients, maximum voluntary feed intake, and productive ability of the cow. Cows fed the computer-formulated rations returned $15 to $21 more income above feed costs per year than cows fed control rations.
Effects of preharvest applications of ethephon on maturation and quality of calmyrna figs
by Marvin Gerdts, Gary Obenauf
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Applications of ethephon at rates from 300 to 500 ppm, applied when most of the basal figs had turned yellow, resulted in an earlier and more compact maturity period, without adverse effects to the crop. Earlier maturity in turn insured improvement of external and internal fig quality, without decreasing individual fruit weights. Ethephon is not registered for use on figs and is not recommended for use at this time by the University of California.
Applications of ethephon at rates from 300 to 500 ppm, applied when most of the basal figs had turned yellow, resulted in an earlier and more compact maturity period, without adverse effects to the crop. Earlier maturity in turn insured improvement of external and internal fig quality, without decreasing individual fruit weights. Ethephon is not registered for use on figs and is not recommended for use at this time by the University of California.
Sex pheromone traps determine need for codling moth control in apple and pear orchards
by Richard S. Bethell, Louis A. Falcon, William C. Batiste, Gordon W. Morehead, Edio P. Delfino
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: For several decades growers of pears and apples in California have controlled the codling moth by coating the fruit with chemical insecticides from petal fall through harvest. This preventive approach was necessary because growers lacked effective methods for determining codling moth activity and abundance in their orchards. While this approach has provided effective control, repeated applications of heavy dosages of broad-spectrum, persistent chemical insecticides have been expensive and disruptive to the environment. Beneficial organisms are destroyed which help regulate the abundance of other pests such as spider mites, aphids, and pear psylla. Released from their natural enemies, these pests frequently reach damaging levels, requiring additional pesticide treatments for their control.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: For several decades growers of pears and apples in California have controlled the codling moth by coating the fruit with chemical insecticides from petal fall through harvest. This preventive approach was necessary because growers lacked effective methods for determining codling moth activity and abundance in their orchards. While this approach has provided effective control, repeated applications of heavy dosages of broad-spectrum, persistent chemical insecticides have been expensive and disruptive to the environment. Beneficial organisms are destroyed which help regulate the abundance of other pests such as spider mites, aphids, and pear psylla. Released from their natural enemies, these pests frequently reach damaging levels, requiring additional pesticide treatments for their control.
Herbicide residues—broadcast vs. banding
by B. Fischer, A. Lange
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Broadcast applications of herbicides on several crops generally produced fewer residual effects than herbicides banded in the Panoche clay loam soil of the San Joaquin Valley test sites.
Broadcast applications of herbicides on several crops generally produced fewer residual effects than herbicides banded in the Panoche clay loam soil of the San Joaquin Valley test sites.
Manure holding ponds found self-sealing
by J. L. Meyer, Earl Olson, Dwight Baier
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Waste ponds can be utilized to economically handle dairy and poultry waste waters. Usually the effluent from the ponds is used later for irrigation. Sometimes the effluent is recycled by reusing it for subsequent flushing. Whatever the mode of operation of the ponds, it is important to know how much, if any, deep percolation occurs; what is the fate of nitrogenous substances; what are the changes in other chemical constituents; and what bacterial processes occur in the ponds. This report outlines some preliminary findings in a study of operation of waste ponds, and delineates subsequent necessary research to evaluate their total impact on the environment. The most significant of these preliminary findings was that there was hardly any seepage of water from manure-laden ponds in this study, and that artificial seals were not needed under these soil conditions.
Waste ponds can be utilized to economically handle dairy and poultry waste waters. Usually the effluent from the ponds is used later for irrigation. Sometimes the effluent is recycled by reusing it for subsequent flushing. Whatever the mode of operation of the ponds, it is important to know how much, if any, deep percolation occurs; what is the fate of nitrogenous substances; what are the changes in other chemical constituents; and what bacterial processes occur in the ponds. This report outlines some preliminary findings in a study of operation of waste ponds, and delineates subsequent necessary research to evaluate their total impact on the environment. The most significant of these preliminary findings was that there was hardly any seepage of water from manure-laden ponds in this study, and that artificial seals were not needed under these soil conditions.

Editorial, News, Letters and Science Briefs

An awakening resource
by Richard D. Teague
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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