Vineyard and fermentation practices affecting wine
It is seldom that some measurable wine quality attribute cannot be correlated with a chemical composition change. Sometimes, chemists' analytical tools are not precise enough to detect the chemical changes. Some vineyard treatments and practices that cause noticeable variations in wine are grape variety, climate, crop level, maturity, rootstock, irrigation, chemical vineyard sprays and dusts, harvesting techniques, and transport to the winery. Other indirect treatments may also alter the chemical makeup of the fruit and possibly cause quality changes.