Study of wines by controlled fermentations in specially designed equipment
Controlled fermentations in wine are under study using special equipment designed to control the temperature, pressure, type and rate of gas or gases sparged into fermenters, and rate and duration of stirring or pumping-over, and allow the submerging of red grape skins for color extraction. For critical work with various yeasts, the equipment can be sterilized under steam pressure. Control instruments record gas flows, pressures, temperatures, and carbon dioxide and oxygen content of gases. Two of these fully controlled fermenters of 25-gallon capacity have been in use for several years. Ten smaller units, each of 7-gallon capacity, are being assembled and will be fully equipped and available to enlarge the area of study within a few years.