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California Agriculture, Vol. 47, No.3

Rice industry simmers: market challenges, resource constraints
Cover:  The beautiful curving lines of Sacramento Valey rice paddies – shown in this 1975 rice harvest photograph – are disappearing today as laser planing technology makes it possible to level fields with great precision. Photo by Jack Kelly Clark
May-June 1993
Volume 47, Number 3

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

California's rice crop: market challenges, resource constraints
by Elmer W. Learn
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
In addition to changes in demand, the rice industry is facing changes in environmental regulation, price supports and trade policy.
California's rice industry faces numerous challenges as it strives to meet competitive pressures in the coming decade. In addition to traditional demand considerations—population and income growth, and changing consumer tastes—competitiveness will be affected by future trade regulations and price support policies. On the supply side, adjustments to current and potential environmental regulations affecting the use of land and water are likely to be of greatest importance to California producers.
Native Americans in California surveyed on diets, nutrition needs
by Joanne Ikeda, Sharon Dugan, Nancy Feldman, Rita Mitchell
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Surveys in the Yosemite-Mariposa region indicate poverty is the chief cause of inadequate nutrition.
Investigation of the diets of Native Americans in California's Yosemite-Mariposa region identified eating habits that contributed to their well-being as well as habits that were potentially detrimental. The main problem: economics. With little money and no access to major grocery chains, many families cannot buy the kind of food that supports an adequate diet; others are unaware of government programs that can help them.
Sycamore scale treatments most effective at bud break
by Pavel Svihra, C. F. Fouche, C. S. Koehler
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Treatments should occur when the largest number of crawlers appears on twigs.
Bud break, not a calendar date, is the best time to protect sycamore trees against the sycamore scale, Stomacoccus platani, with insecticidal sprays. It is at bud break that the highest density of crawlers appears on twigs.
Codling moth, navel orangeworm studies show knowing location of pests in walnuts should help disrupt mating, egg laying
by G. Steven Sibbett, Donald L. Flaherty, Kathleen M. Kelley, Richard E. Rice, John E. Dibble
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Codling moth flight activity is greatest in tree tops; pheromone traps and dispensers should be placed in the upper canopy.
In flight, codling moths prefer upper tree strata, whereas navel orangeworm oviposition is more evenly distributed throughout the tree. Pest monitoring and pheromone placement for mating disruption should recognize the vertical distribution of these insects in walnut trees.
In outdoor planters in commercial centers… Insect-parasitic nematodes are effective against black vine weevil
by Tom M. Burlando, Harry K. Kaya, Patricia Timper
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
In commercial areas catering to shoppers and outdoor diners, effective biological control of BVW is preferable to chemical.
Insect-parasitic nematodes suppressed black vine weevil larvae in planters containing ivy vines at a commercial building. After 1 year, weevil numbers were lower in containers treated with nematodes either with or without an added alternate host.
Uniformity in pressurized irrigation systems depends on design, installation
by Gordon E. Little, David J. Hills, Blaine R. Hanson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
In some Southern California farms, water distribution uniformity was low, adding to water and energy costs.
Of 258 irrigation systems evaluated by mobile field laboratories in five Southern California resource conservation districts, average uniformity in distribution of water was relatively low. Generally, farms larger than 100 acres had systems with higher uniformity in distribution. Age of a system did not necessarily account for poor distribution. What did account for it was variation in pressures due to inadequate system design or to installation of incorrect hardware.
Crop response to sewage sludge compost: a preliminary report
by Robert F. Bevacqua, Valerie J. Mellano
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Municipal sewage sludge — whether heat-dried or amended with Eucalyptus and composted — proved beneficial to crop growth.
Municipal sewage sludge, amended with Eucalyptus tree trimmings and composted, is being evaluated in San Diego as a soil amendment for field and greenhouse plantings of onion, snapdragon, turf and spinach. So far, increases in yields have been significant. In greenhouse studies comparing compost containing Eucalyptus trimmings with heat-dried sludge, results show both materials equally beneficial to crop growth. The presence of Eucalyptus did not decrease yields.
Cupric-oxide needles effective as oral copper supplement in cattle
by John R. Dunbar, James G. Morris, Ben B. Norman, A. J. Jenkins, Charles B. Wilson, John M. Connor
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Encapsulized copper needles administered in cattle feed proved as effective as copper injections.
Increasing copper levels in 120 growing beef heifers, ages 6 to 9 months, was attempted with copper injections and with oral administration of cupric-oxide needles. The weaned Hereford heifers were randomly allocated to three groups, including one with no supplementation. Study results indicate that oral administration of copper-wire particles was effective, cheap, safe and convenient in preventing or treating copper deficiency. Such a deficiency can retard growth in cattle.
Almond hulls in swine diet reduce body fat
by Josep M. Homedes, Eugeni Roura, Nancy L. Keim, Dan L. Brown
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
In some situations, high-fiber almond hulls may prove a useful addition to swine diets.
Nine Duroc and thirteen crossbred (Hampshire x Yorkshire) growingfinishing barrows were fed two different diets: a typical corn/soybean basal diet and a diet consisting 85% of the basal diet plus 15% of almond hulls. Body composition was obtained by measuring total body electrical conductivity before and after the feeding trial. The upshot: Pigs fed the almond hulls ended up with 16% less body fat. The results raise questions: Should almond hulls be used to improve carcass grade—particularly where maximum rates of gain are less important than carcass quality? Also, can almond hulls be useful in gestation diets and for breeding stock?
From dried beet pulp to rice hulls: Rumen digestion of various dairy feedstuffs compared in tests
by Thomas A. Shultz, Carol A. Collar, Donald L. Bath, Abbas Ahmadi
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Experiments reveal comparative digestibility of both common and relatively new feedstuffs.
From California's agricultural and livestock industries come a wide variety of possible ingredients for dairy feeding. Relatively limited information exists on the rumen's degradation of these feeds. In tests, disappearance of feedstuffs from suspended dacron bags in the rumen indicates apparent rumen digestibility. Data on observations of both common and relatively new feeds are presented here.

Editorial, News, Letters and Science Briefs

UC research and education: engines of economic growth
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 47, No.3

Rice industry simmers: market challenges, resource constraints
Cover:  The beautiful curving lines of Sacramento Valey rice paddies – shown in this 1975 rice harvest photograph – are disappearing today as laser planing technology makes it possible to level fields with great precision. Photo by Jack Kelly Clark
May-June 1993
Volume 47, Number 3

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

California's rice crop: market challenges, resource constraints
by Elmer W. Learn
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
In addition to changes in demand, the rice industry is facing changes in environmental regulation, price supports and trade policy.
California's rice industry faces numerous challenges as it strives to meet competitive pressures in the coming decade. In addition to traditional demand considerations—population and income growth, and changing consumer tastes—competitiveness will be affected by future trade regulations and price support policies. On the supply side, adjustments to current and potential environmental regulations affecting the use of land and water are likely to be of greatest importance to California producers.
Native Americans in California surveyed on diets, nutrition needs
by Joanne Ikeda, Sharon Dugan, Nancy Feldman, Rita Mitchell
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Surveys in the Yosemite-Mariposa region indicate poverty is the chief cause of inadequate nutrition.
Investigation of the diets of Native Americans in California's Yosemite-Mariposa region identified eating habits that contributed to their well-being as well as habits that were potentially detrimental. The main problem: economics. With little money and no access to major grocery chains, many families cannot buy the kind of food that supports an adequate diet; others are unaware of government programs that can help them.
Sycamore scale treatments most effective at bud break
by Pavel Svihra, C. F. Fouche, C. S. Koehler
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Treatments should occur when the largest number of crawlers appears on twigs.
Bud break, not a calendar date, is the best time to protect sycamore trees against the sycamore scale, Stomacoccus platani, with insecticidal sprays. It is at bud break that the highest density of crawlers appears on twigs.
Codling moth, navel orangeworm studies show knowing location of pests in walnuts should help disrupt mating, egg laying
by G. Steven Sibbett, Donald L. Flaherty, Kathleen M. Kelley, Richard E. Rice, John E. Dibble
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Codling moth flight activity is greatest in tree tops; pheromone traps and dispensers should be placed in the upper canopy.
In flight, codling moths prefer upper tree strata, whereas navel orangeworm oviposition is more evenly distributed throughout the tree. Pest monitoring and pheromone placement for mating disruption should recognize the vertical distribution of these insects in walnut trees.
In outdoor planters in commercial centers… Insect-parasitic nematodes are effective against black vine weevil
by Tom M. Burlando, Harry K. Kaya, Patricia Timper
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
In commercial areas catering to shoppers and outdoor diners, effective biological control of BVW is preferable to chemical.
Insect-parasitic nematodes suppressed black vine weevil larvae in planters containing ivy vines at a commercial building. After 1 year, weevil numbers were lower in containers treated with nematodes either with or without an added alternate host.
Uniformity in pressurized irrigation systems depends on design, installation
by Gordon E. Little, David J. Hills, Blaine R. Hanson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
In some Southern California farms, water distribution uniformity was low, adding to water and energy costs.
Of 258 irrigation systems evaluated by mobile field laboratories in five Southern California resource conservation districts, average uniformity in distribution of water was relatively low. Generally, farms larger than 100 acres had systems with higher uniformity in distribution. Age of a system did not necessarily account for poor distribution. What did account for it was variation in pressures due to inadequate system design or to installation of incorrect hardware.
Crop response to sewage sludge compost: a preliminary report
by Robert F. Bevacqua, Valerie J. Mellano
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Municipal sewage sludge — whether heat-dried or amended with Eucalyptus and composted — proved beneficial to crop growth.
Municipal sewage sludge, amended with Eucalyptus tree trimmings and composted, is being evaluated in San Diego as a soil amendment for field and greenhouse plantings of onion, snapdragon, turf and spinach. So far, increases in yields have been significant. In greenhouse studies comparing compost containing Eucalyptus trimmings with heat-dried sludge, results show both materials equally beneficial to crop growth. The presence of Eucalyptus did not decrease yields.
Cupric-oxide needles effective as oral copper supplement in cattle
by John R. Dunbar, James G. Morris, Ben B. Norman, A. J. Jenkins, Charles B. Wilson, John M. Connor
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Encapsulized copper needles administered in cattle feed proved as effective as copper injections.
Increasing copper levels in 120 growing beef heifers, ages 6 to 9 months, was attempted with copper injections and with oral administration of cupric-oxide needles. The weaned Hereford heifers were randomly allocated to three groups, including one with no supplementation. Study results indicate that oral administration of copper-wire particles was effective, cheap, safe and convenient in preventing or treating copper deficiency. Such a deficiency can retard growth in cattle.
Almond hulls in swine diet reduce body fat
by Josep M. Homedes, Eugeni Roura, Nancy L. Keim, Dan L. Brown
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
In some situations, high-fiber almond hulls may prove a useful addition to swine diets.
Nine Duroc and thirteen crossbred (Hampshire x Yorkshire) growingfinishing barrows were fed two different diets: a typical corn/soybean basal diet and a diet consisting 85% of the basal diet plus 15% of almond hulls. Body composition was obtained by measuring total body electrical conductivity before and after the feeding trial. The upshot: Pigs fed the almond hulls ended up with 16% less body fat. The results raise questions: Should almond hulls be used to improve carcass grade—particularly where maximum rates of gain are less important than carcass quality? Also, can almond hulls be useful in gestation diets and for breeding stock?
From dried beet pulp to rice hulls: Rumen digestion of various dairy feedstuffs compared in tests
by Thomas A. Shultz, Carol A. Collar, Donald L. Bath, Abbas Ahmadi
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Experiments reveal comparative digestibility of both common and relatively new feedstuffs.
From California's agricultural and livestock industries come a wide variety of possible ingredients for dairy feeding. Relatively limited information exists on the rumen's degradation of these feeds. In tests, disappearance of feedstuffs from suspended dacron bags in the rumen indicates apparent rumen digestibility. Data on observations of both common and relatively new feeds are presented here.

Editorial, News, Letters and Science Briefs

UC research and education: engines of economic growth
by Kenneth R. Farrell
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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Email: calag@ucanr.edu | Phone: (510) 665-2163 | Fax: (510) 665-3427
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