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California Agriculture, Vol. 38, No.1

Special insert: Agricultural field stations
Cover:  Special insert: Agricultural field stations
January-February 1984
Volume 38, Number 1

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Beet western yellows can cause heavy losses in sugarbeet
by Robert T. Lewellen, Irvin O. Skoyen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Virus yellows disease of sugarbeet is caused by a complex of aphid transmitted viruses. The three most important components of this complex in California are beet yellows virus (BYV), beet western yellows virus (BWYV), and beet mosaic virus. Each component is distinct and has unique virus particle structure, vector characteristics, and host range.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Virus yellows disease of sugarbeet is caused by a complex of aphid transmitted viruses. The three most important components of this complex in California are beet yellows virus (BYV), beet western yellows virus (BWYV), and beet mosaic virus. Each component is distinct and has unique virus particle structure, vector characteristics, and host range.
Strategies for managing lepidopterous pests on lettuce
by Marshall W. Johnson, Ken Kido, Nick C. Toscano, Robert A. Van Steenwyk, Steve C. Welter, Norman F. McCalley
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
It isn't necessary to keep the crop insect-free during the entire growing season
Harvest and postharvest handling of Chinese date
by Adel A. Kader, Alexander Chordas, Yu Li
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Jujube, or Chinese date, is a deciduous nit tree of tropical and subtropical origin, now grown primarily in home gardens in California and Florida. Among problems that have limited development of jujube as a commercial crop in California are several factors related to harvesting and postharvest handling. These include variation in ripening time among fruits, failure of green fruits to ripen after harvest, and poor storageability of ripe fruits on the tree. To help overcome these limitations, we conducted studies on compositional changes associated with maturation and ripening and on optimum postharvest handling temperatures for transport and storage of these fruits.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Jujube, or Chinese date, is a deciduous nit tree of tropical and subtropical origin, now grown primarily in home gardens in California and Florida. Among problems that have limited development of jujube as a commercial crop in California are several factors related to harvesting and postharvest handling. These include variation in ripening time among fruits, failure of green fruits to ripen after harvest, and poor storageability of ripe fruits on the tree. To help overcome these limitations, we conducted studies on compositional changes associated with maturation and ripening and on optimum postharvest handling temperatures for transport and storage of these fruits.
The vegetable leafminer on fresh market tomatoes in southern California
by Marshall W. Johnson, Earl R. Oatman, Nick C. Toscano, Steve C. Welter, John T. Trumble
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Most of California's fresh market tomatoes, a crop valued at $161.1 million in 1981, are grown in San Diego, Orange, Ventura, San Joaquin, Merced, and Fresno counties. In southern California, growers may establish tomato plantings from early February through mid-July. Planting dates (spring, summer, fall) are influenced by the market, especially the spring and fall crops, which usually are more profitable.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Most of California's fresh market tomatoes, a crop valued at $161.1 million in 1981, are grown in San Diego, Orange, Ventura, San Joaquin, Merced, and Fresno counties. In southern California, growers may establish tomato plantings from early February through mid-July. Planting dates (spring, summer, fall) are influenced by the market, especially the spring and fall crops, which usually are more profitable.
Irrigation scheduling under saline high water tables
by Sidney W. Kite, Blaine R. Hanson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Approximately 400,000 acres in the San Joaquin Valley are classified as drainage problem areas. Levels of soil salinity detrimental to crop yield exist in these areas because of saline high water tables. One water district serving 264,000 acres needing drainage estimated that their production loss caused by drainage problems was about $17 million in 1981.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Approximately 400,000 acres in the San Joaquin Valley are classified as drainage problem areas. Levels of soil salinity detrimental to crop yield exist in these areas because of saline high water tables. One water district serving 264,000 acres needing drainage estimated that their production loss caused by drainage problems was about $17 million in 1981.
The medfly crisis: Citizens' response to eradication risks
by Glenn R. Hawkes, Marc Pilisuk, Martha C. Stiles, Curt Acredolo
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The public saw the benefits of medfly eradication as far exceeding the risks of exposure to pesticides
Employment, wages, and benefits on California farms
by Gary W. Johnston, Philip L. Martin
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Year-round employees averaged $5.16 per hour
Vibration packing of Thompson Seedless grapes
by F. Gordon Mitchell, Donald A. Luvisi, Gene Mayer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The method results in up to one-half to two-thirds less berry shatter than hand-packing
Insecticide resistance in Liriomyza trifolii
by Michael P. Parrella, Clifford B. Keil, Joseph G. Morse
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Rapid buildup of insecticide resistance may cause problems in California crops
Soil nitrate level best measure of ryegrass nitrogen needs in Imperial Valley
by Robert W. Hagemann, Carl F. Ehlig, Richard Y. Reynoso
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Annual ryegrass produces superior yields of hay or pasturage with excellent palatability, a protein content above 20 percent, and other desirable qualities. The new fertilizer technology provides a highly favorable economic return. However, the nitrogen fertilization rates required for highest yields may cause plant nitrate-nitrogen concentrations that are toxic to livestock.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Annual ryegrass produces superior yields of hay or pasturage with excellent palatability, a protein content above 20 percent, and other desirable qualities. The new fertilizer technology provides a highly favorable economic return. However, the nitrogen fertilization rates required for highest yields may cause plant nitrate-nitrogen concentrations that are toxic to livestock.
The benefits of a farm safety program
by David L. Bayer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Work-related injuries impose substantial costs on employers as well as employees. This is as true of agriculture as of other industries. Moreover, because crops may perish if accidents delay harvest, and expensive machinery must be handled by experienced workers. farmers cannot afford to lose key people. There is ample proof from other industries that effective safety programs can reduce injuries and save companies money. The DuPont Company, for example, saved $26 million on workers' compensation, or the equivalent of 3.6 percent of its net profits, because management made safety the first item on its agenda (Jeremy Main, “When Accidents Don't Happen,” Fortune, September 6, 1982). However, until now, the literature has provided few examples of such success in agriculture.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Work-related injuries impose substantial costs on employers as well as employees. This is as true of agriculture as of other industries. Moreover, because crops may perish if accidents delay harvest, and expensive machinery must be handled by experienced workers. farmers cannot afford to lose key people. There is ample proof from other industries that effective safety programs can reduce injuries and save companies money. The DuPont Company, for example, saved $26 million on workers' compensation, or the equivalent of 3.6 percent of its net profits, because management made safety the first item on its agenda (Jeremy Main, “When Accidents Don't Happen,” Fortune, September 6, 1982). However, until now, the literature has provided few examples of such success in agriculture.
Use of integrated pest management in alfalfa
by Mary Louise Flint, Karen Klonsky, Frank G. Zalom
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A survey showed that many growers are not aware of current pest management recommendations
The variegated grape leafhopper in the San Joaquin Valley
by Hiroshi Kido, Donald L. Flaherty, Daniel F. Bosch, Karen A. Valero
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: The variegated grape leafhopper, the principal pest of grapes in southern California and Arizona, was reported for the first time in 1980 on grapes in Fresno County, in the San Joaquin Valley. Its widespread distribution there, however, suggested that it had been present before then. This leafhopper has since been found also in Tulare County. A closely related species, the grape leafhopper, is the most common grape pest in central and northern California.
Not available – first paragraph follows: The variegated grape leafhopper, the principal pest of grapes in southern California and Arizona, was reported for the first time in 1980 on grapes in Fresno County, in the San Joaquin Valley. Its widespread distribution there, however, suggested that it had been present before then. This leafhopper has since been found also in Tulare County. A closely related species, the grape leafhopper, is the most common grape pest in central and northern California.

News and Opinion

The plant health specialist's time has arrived
by J. B. Kendrick
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 38, No.1

Special insert: Agricultural field stations
Cover:  Special insert: Agricultural field stations
January-February 1984
Volume 38, Number 1

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Beet western yellows can cause heavy losses in sugarbeet
by Robert T. Lewellen, Irvin O. Skoyen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Virus yellows disease of sugarbeet is caused by a complex of aphid transmitted viruses. The three most important components of this complex in California are beet yellows virus (BYV), beet western yellows virus (BWYV), and beet mosaic virus. Each component is distinct and has unique virus particle structure, vector characteristics, and host range.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Virus yellows disease of sugarbeet is caused by a complex of aphid transmitted viruses. The three most important components of this complex in California are beet yellows virus (BYV), beet western yellows virus (BWYV), and beet mosaic virus. Each component is distinct and has unique virus particle structure, vector characteristics, and host range.
Strategies for managing lepidopterous pests on lettuce
by Marshall W. Johnson, Ken Kido, Nick C. Toscano, Robert A. Van Steenwyk, Steve C. Welter, Norman F. McCalley
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
It isn't necessary to keep the crop insect-free during the entire growing season
Harvest and postharvest handling of Chinese date
by Adel A. Kader, Alexander Chordas, Yu Li
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Jujube, or Chinese date, is a deciduous nit tree of tropical and subtropical origin, now grown primarily in home gardens in California and Florida. Among problems that have limited development of jujube as a commercial crop in California are several factors related to harvesting and postharvest handling. These include variation in ripening time among fruits, failure of green fruits to ripen after harvest, and poor storageability of ripe fruits on the tree. To help overcome these limitations, we conducted studies on compositional changes associated with maturation and ripening and on optimum postharvest handling temperatures for transport and storage of these fruits.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Jujube, or Chinese date, is a deciduous nit tree of tropical and subtropical origin, now grown primarily in home gardens in California and Florida. Among problems that have limited development of jujube as a commercial crop in California are several factors related to harvesting and postharvest handling. These include variation in ripening time among fruits, failure of green fruits to ripen after harvest, and poor storageability of ripe fruits on the tree. To help overcome these limitations, we conducted studies on compositional changes associated with maturation and ripening and on optimum postharvest handling temperatures for transport and storage of these fruits.
The vegetable leafminer on fresh market tomatoes in southern California
by Marshall W. Johnson, Earl R. Oatman, Nick C. Toscano, Steve C. Welter, John T. Trumble
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Most of California's fresh market tomatoes, a crop valued at $161.1 million in 1981, are grown in San Diego, Orange, Ventura, San Joaquin, Merced, and Fresno counties. In southern California, growers may establish tomato plantings from early February through mid-July. Planting dates (spring, summer, fall) are influenced by the market, especially the spring and fall crops, which usually are more profitable.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Most of California's fresh market tomatoes, a crop valued at $161.1 million in 1981, are grown in San Diego, Orange, Ventura, San Joaquin, Merced, and Fresno counties. In southern California, growers may establish tomato plantings from early February through mid-July. Planting dates (spring, summer, fall) are influenced by the market, especially the spring and fall crops, which usually are more profitable.
Irrigation scheduling under saline high water tables
by Sidney W. Kite, Blaine R. Hanson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Approximately 400,000 acres in the San Joaquin Valley are classified as drainage problem areas. Levels of soil salinity detrimental to crop yield exist in these areas because of saline high water tables. One water district serving 264,000 acres needing drainage estimated that their production loss caused by drainage problems was about $17 million in 1981.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Approximately 400,000 acres in the San Joaquin Valley are classified as drainage problem areas. Levels of soil salinity detrimental to crop yield exist in these areas because of saline high water tables. One water district serving 264,000 acres needing drainage estimated that their production loss caused by drainage problems was about $17 million in 1981.
The medfly crisis: Citizens' response to eradication risks
by Glenn R. Hawkes, Marc Pilisuk, Martha C. Stiles, Curt Acredolo
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The public saw the benefits of medfly eradication as far exceeding the risks of exposure to pesticides
Employment, wages, and benefits on California farms
by Gary W. Johnston, Philip L. Martin
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Year-round employees averaged $5.16 per hour
Vibration packing of Thompson Seedless grapes
by F. Gordon Mitchell, Donald A. Luvisi, Gene Mayer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The method results in up to one-half to two-thirds less berry shatter than hand-packing
Insecticide resistance in Liriomyza trifolii
by Michael P. Parrella, Clifford B. Keil, Joseph G. Morse
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Rapid buildup of insecticide resistance may cause problems in California crops
Soil nitrate level best measure of ryegrass nitrogen needs in Imperial Valley
by Robert W. Hagemann, Carl F. Ehlig, Richard Y. Reynoso
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Annual ryegrass produces superior yields of hay or pasturage with excellent palatability, a protein content above 20 percent, and other desirable qualities. The new fertilizer technology provides a highly favorable economic return. However, the nitrogen fertilization rates required for highest yields may cause plant nitrate-nitrogen concentrations that are toxic to livestock.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Annual ryegrass produces superior yields of hay or pasturage with excellent palatability, a protein content above 20 percent, and other desirable qualities. The new fertilizer technology provides a highly favorable economic return. However, the nitrogen fertilization rates required for highest yields may cause plant nitrate-nitrogen concentrations that are toxic to livestock.
The benefits of a farm safety program
by David L. Bayer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Work-related injuries impose substantial costs on employers as well as employees. This is as true of agriculture as of other industries. Moreover, because crops may perish if accidents delay harvest, and expensive machinery must be handled by experienced workers. farmers cannot afford to lose key people. There is ample proof from other industries that effective safety programs can reduce injuries and save companies money. The DuPont Company, for example, saved $26 million on workers' compensation, or the equivalent of 3.6 percent of its net profits, because management made safety the first item on its agenda (Jeremy Main, “When Accidents Don't Happen,” Fortune, September 6, 1982). However, until now, the literature has provided few examples of such success in agriculture.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Work-related injuries impose substantial costs on employers as well as employees. This is as true of agriculture as of other industries. Moreover, because crops may perish if accidents delay harvest, and expensive machinery must be handled by experienced workers. farmers cannot afford to lose key people. There is ample proof from other industries that effective safety programs can reduce injuries and save companies money. The DuPont Company, for example, saved $26 million on workers' compensation, or the equivalent of 3.6 percent of its net profits, because management made safety the first item on its agenda (Jeremy Main, “When Accidents Don't Happen,” Fortune, September 6, 1982). However, until now, the literature has provided few examples of such success in agriculture.
Use of integrated pest management in alfalfa
by Mary Louise Flint, Karen Klonsky, Frank G. Zalom
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
A survey showed that many growers are not aware of current pest management recommendations
The variegated grape leafhopper in the San Joaquin Valley
by Hiroshi Kido, Donald L. Flaherty, Daniel F. Bosch, Karen A. Valero
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: The variegated grape leafhopper, the principal pest of grapes in southern California and Arizona, was reported for the first time in 1980 on grapes in Fresno County, in the San Joaquin Valley. Its widespread distribution there, however, suggested that it had been present before then. This leafhopper has since been found also in Tulare County. A closely related species, the grape leafhopper, is the most common grape pest in central and northern California.
Not available – first paragraph follows: The variegated grape leafhopper, the principal pest of grapes in southern California and Arizona, was reported for the first time in 1980 on grapes in Fresno County, in the San Joaquin Valley. Its widespread distribution there, however, suggested that it had been present before then. This leafhopper has since been found also in Tulare County. A closely related species, the grape leafhopper, is the most common grape pest in central and northern California.

News and Opinion

The plant health specialist's time has arrived
by J. B. Kendrick
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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