California Agriculture
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November-December 1982
Volume 36, Number 11

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Diseases and their control
by Edmond C. Calavan, Seymour D. Van Gundy, Joseph W. Eckert, Edward L. V. Johnson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Several times in the past 75 years, California's citrus industry faced catastrophic losses from fruit and tree diseases. In every case, timely research greatly reduced the damage.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Several times in the past 75 years, California's citrus industry faced catastrophic losses from fruit and tree diseases. In every case, timely research greatly reduced the damage.
Insect pests and their control
by Louis A. Riehl, Paul DeBach
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: University research on insects and mites on citrus began in southern California in 1906 with the appointment of H. J. Quayle to the U.C. Plant Disease Laboratory at Whittier. In 1916 he correctly attributed resistance of black scale and California red scale to fumigation with HCN— one of the first reports of resistance. Quayle moved to Riverside in 1917, and the Division of Entomology of the Citrus Experiment Station was formed in 1918. Professor Quayle's studies on citrus insects and mites and their control brought worldwide recognition.
Not available – first paragraph follows: University research on insects and mites on citrus began in southern California in 1906 with the appointment of H. J. Quayle to the U.C. Plant Disease Laboratory at Whittier. In 1916 he correctly attributed resistance of black scale and California red scale to fumigation with HCN— one of the first reports of resistance. Quayle moved to Riverside in 1917, and the Division of Entomology of the Citrus Experiment Station was formed in 1918. Professor Quayle's studies on citrus insects and mites and their control brought worldwide recognition.
History of the Citrus Research Center
by Lewis G. Weathers, Harry W. Lawton
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: From the start of the California citrus industry in the 1860s, the pioneer citrus growers of southern California, many of them retired business or professional men from New England or the central states, showed an eagerness to explore every innovative method of production or marketing that might increase profits.
Not available – first paragraph follows: From the start of the California citrus industry in the 1860s, the pioneer citrus growers of southern California, many of them retired business or professional men from New England or the central states, showed an eagerness to explore every innovative method of production or marketing that might increase profits.
Breeding and development
by James W. Cameron, Robert K. Soost
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: When Howard B. Frost began citrus breeding at the University of California Citrus Experiment Station in 1914, knowledge of crossing relationships in the genus was limited to earlier studies in Florida by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Frost began a wide series of crosses among edible types, but the numbers of hybrids first obtained were limited by nucellar embryony. This is the phenomenon by which somatic cells of the nucellus (tissue in the ovule but outside the embryo sac) develop into embryos. Since these nucellar embryos develop asexually, with no male cells contributing to their formation, they are usually genetically identical with the seed parent.
Not available – first paragraph follows: When Howard B. Frost began citrus breeding at the University of California Citrus Experiment Station in 1914, knowledge of crossing relationships in the genus was limited to earlier studies in Florida by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Frost began a wide series of crosses among edible types, but the numbers of hybrids first obtained were limited by nucellar embryony. This is the phenomenon by which somatic cells of the nucellus (tissue in the ovule but outside the embryo sac) develop into embryos. Since these nucellar embryos develop asexually, with no male cells contributing to their formation, they are usually genetically identical with the seed parent.
Cultural practices
by Walter Reuther, Winston W. Jones
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Since the Citrus Experiment Station began in 1907, a major concern has been development of more efficient fertilizer practices. Early experiments by CES scientists, primarily in the orchards of cooperating growers, showed that on most, but not all, California soils, citrus trees do not respond to potassium and phosphorus application. Substantial amounts of nitrogen, however, have been required annually to maintain good vigor and yield. Later (after World War I), it was found that animal and green manures could be replaced as nitrogen sources by chemical sources, which, among other advantages, were more efficiently used by the tree and became progressively cheaper per unit of nitrogen.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Since the Citrus Experiment Station began in 1907, a major concern has been development of more efficient fertilizer practices. Early experiments by CES scientists, primarily in the orchards of cooperating growers, showed that on most, but not all, California soils, citrus trees do not respond to potassium and phosphorus application. Substantial amounts of nitrogen, however, have been required annually to maintain good vigor and yield. Later (after World War I), it was found that animal and green manures could be replaced as nitrogen sources by chemical sources, which, among other advantages, were more efficiently used by the tree and became progressively cheaper per unit of nitrogen.
Whitefly-transmitted disease complex of the Desert Southwest
by James E. Duffus, Robert A. Flock
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Studies so far indicate that whiteflies transmit at least three widespread diseases of desert crops.
Crop losses caused by whitefly-transmitted agents could change the agriculture of the desert.
Applying parasitic nematodes to control carpenterworms in fig orchards
by James E. Lindegren, William W. Barnett
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Techniques have been perfected for commercial application of a nematode that seeks out and kills carpenterworms hidden in fig tree heartwood.
Growth control of laurel fig with chlorflurenol
by Henry Hield, Stuart Hemstreet
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Where foliar sprays are impractical, the growth regulator chlorflurenol applied by trunk banding can lengthen the pruning cycle.
Chemical banding maintains desirable appearance with two-thirds less pruning.
A simplified bioassay system: Improved detection of dicofol-resistant spider mites in cotton
by Timothy J. Dennehy, Jeffrey Granett
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The bioassay technique revealed that mites were killed on contact but tolerated miticide residues.
Cotton growth related to plant's water status
by Donald W. Grimes, Hidemi Yamada
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Measuring the plant's water status instead of soil moisture makes it possible to irrigate according to needs at each growth stage.
Leaf water potential may be a better guide to irrigation timing than soil water status.
Monitoring aphid infestations on broccoli
by John T. Trumble, Henry Nakakihara, William Carson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Samples from throughout the field provide the best picture of aphid density, but those from field borders give earliest notice of aphid migrations.
Control of Liriomyza trifolii with biological agents and insect growth regulators
by Michael P. Parrella, Karen L. Robb, George D. Christie, James A. Bethke
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Several parasites are being evaluated for possible use in conjunction with compatible insecticides.
Several natural enemies show promise against hard-to-control leafminer

Editorial, News, Letters and Science Briefs

A classic model of successful research
by Lowell N. Lewis
Full text HTML  | PDF  

General Information

A new approach to virus-free citrus trees
by Editors
Full text HTML  | PDF  
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu

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November-December 1982
Volume 36, Number 11

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

Diseases and their control
by Edmond C. Calavan, Seymour D. Van Gundy, Joseph W. Eckert, Edward L. V. Johnson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Several times in the past 75 years, California's citrus industry faced catastrophic losses from fruit and tree diseases. In every case, timely research greatly reduced the damage.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Several times in the past 75 years, California's citrus industry faced catastrophic losses from fruit and tree diseases. In every case, timely research greatly reduced the damage.
Insect pests and their control
by Louis A. Riehl, Paul DeBach
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: University research on insects and mites on citrus began in southern California in 1906 with the appointment of H. J. Quayle to the U.C. Plant Disease Laboratory at Whittier. In 1916 he correctly attributed resistance of black scale and California red scale to fumigation with HCN— one of the first reports of resistance. Quayle moved to Riverside in 1917, and the Division of Entomology of the Citrus Experiment Station was formed in 1918. Professor Quayle's studies on citrus insects and mites and their control brought worldwide recognition.
Not available – first paragraph follows: University research on insects and mites on citrus began in southern California in 1906 with the appointment of H. J. Quayle to the U.C. Plant Disease Laboratory at Whittier. In 1916 he correctly attributed resistance of black scale and California red scale to fumigation with HCN— one of the first reports of resistance. Quayle moved to Riverside in 1917, and the Division of Entomology of the Citrus Experiment Station was formed in 1918. Professor Quayle's studies on citrus insects and mites and their control brought worldwide recognition.
History of the Citrus Research Center
by Lewis G. Weathers, Harry W. Lawton
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: From the start of the California citrus industry in the 1860s, the pioneer citrus growers of southern California, many of them retired business or professional men from New England or the central states, showed an eagerness to explore every innovative method of production or marketing that might increase profits.
Not available – first paragraph follows: From the start of the California citrus industry in the 1860s, the pioneer citrus growers of southern California, many of them retired business or professional men from New England or the central states, showed an eagerness to explore every innovative method of production or marketing that might increase profits.
Breeding and development
by James W. Cameron, Robert K. Soost
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: When Howard B. Frost began citrus breeding at the University of California Citrus Experiment Station in 1914, knowledge of crossing relationships in the genus was limited to earlier studies in Florida by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Frost began a wide series of crosses among edible types, but the numbers of hybrids first obtained were limited by nucellar embryony. This is the phenomenon by which somatic cells of the nucellus (tissue in the ovule but outside the embryo sac) develop into embryos. Since these nucellar embryos develop asexually, with no male cells contributing to their formation, they are usually genetically identical with the seed parent.
Not available – first paragraph follows: When Howard B. Frost began citrus breeding at the University of California Citrus Experiment Station in 1914, knowledge of crossing relationships in the genus was limited to earlier studies in Florida by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Frost began a wide series of crosses among edible types, but the numbers of hybrids first obtained were limited by nucellar embryony. This is the phenomenon by which somatic cells of the nucellus (tissue in the ovule but outside the embryo sac) develop into embryos. Since these nucellar embryos develop asexually, with no male cells contributing to their formation, they are usually genetically identical with the seed parent.
Cultural practices
by Walter Reuther, Winston W. Jones
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Since the Citrus Experiment Station began in 1907, a major concern has been development of more efficient fertilizer practices. Early experiments by CES scientists, primarily in the orchards of cooperating growers, showed that on most, but not all, California soils, citrus trees do not respond to potassium and phosphorus application. Substantial amounts of nitrogen, however, have been required annually to maintain good vigor and yield. Later (after World War I), it was found that animal and green manures could be replaced as nitrogen sources by chemical sources, which, among other advantages, were more efficiently used by the tree and became progressively cheaper per unit of nitrogen.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Since the Citrus Experiment Station began in 1907, a major concern has been development of more efficient fertilizer practices. Early experiments by CES scientists, primarily in the orchards of cooperating growers, showed that on most, but not all, California soils, citrus trees do not respond to potassium and phosphorus application. Substantial amounts of nitrogen, however, have been required annually to maintain good vigor and yield. Later (after World War I), it was found that animal and green manures could be replaced as nitrogen sources by chemical sources, which, among other advantages, were more efficiently used by the tree and became progressively cheaper per unit of nitrogen.
Whitefly-transmitted disease complex of the Desert Southwest
by James E. Duffus, Robert A. Flock
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Studies so far indicate that whiteflies transmit at least three widespread diseases of desert crops.
Crop losses caused by whitefly-transmitted agents could change the agriculture of the desert.
Applying parasitic nematodes to control carpenterworms in fig orchards
by James E. Lindegren, William W. Barnett
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Techniques have been perfected for commercial application of a nematode that seeks out and kills carpenterworms hidden in fig tree heartwood.
Growth control of laurel fig with chlorflurenol
by Henry Hield, Stuart Hemstreet
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Where foliar sprays are impractical, the growth regulator chlorflurenol applied by trunk banding can lengthen the pruning cycle.
Chemical banding maintains desirable appearance with two-thirds less pruning.
A simplified bioassay system: Improved detection of dicofol-resistant spider mites in cotton
by Timothy J. Dennehy, Jeffrey Granett
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
The bioassay technique revealed that mites were killed on contact but tolerated miticide residues.
Cotton growth related to plant's water status
by Donald W. Grimes, Hidemi Yamada
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Measuring the plant's water status instead of soil moisture makes it possible to irrigate according to needs at each growth stage.
Leaf water potential may be a better guide to irrigation timing than soil water status.
Monitoring aphid infestations on broccoli
by John T. Trumble, Henry Nakakihara, William Carson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Samples from throughout the field provide the best picture of aphid density, but those from field borders give earliest notice of aphid migrations.
Control of Liriomyza trifolii with biological agents and insect growth regulators
by Michael P. Parrella, Karen L. Robb, George D. Christie, James A. Bethke
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Several parasites are being evaluated for possible use in conjunction with compatible insecticides.
Several natural enemies show promise against hard-to-control leafminer

Editorial, News, Letters and Science Briefs

A classic model of successful research
by Lowell N. Lewis
Full text HTML  | PDF  

General Information

A new approach to virus-free citrus trees
by Editors
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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