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California Agriculture, Vol. 28, No.10

Cover:  Post-harvest wheel traffic reduced alfalfa stand and root development on sandy loam soil as shown in this photo taken during experiments at the San Joaquin Valley Research and Extension Center, Parlier.
October 1974
Volume 28, Number 10

Research articles

Energy and Agriculture economic perspectives
by J. G. Youde, H. O. Carter
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Although increased costs resulting from higher prices for energy-related needs on the farm appear to be the most obvious problem, world marketing complications resulting from the “energy crisis”—not production costs-will also create problems for U. S. agriculture in the next several years.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Although increased costs resulting from higher prices for energy-related needs on the farm appear to be the most obvious problem, world marketing complications resulting from the “energy crisis”—not production costs-will also create problems for U. S. agriculture in the next several years.
Influence of wheel traffic on yield and stand longevity of Alfalfa
by R. Sheesley, D. W. Grimes, W. D. McClell, C. G. Summers, V. Marble
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: These experiments indicate wheel traffic in alfalfa hay fields is responsible for severe reduction in yield and stand life. Wheel traffic on sandy or medium texture soils also limits the development of alfalfa roots by compaction. Mechanical damage to crowns and regrowth shoots in treatments simulating baler, cuber or bale wagon traffic resulted in reduced plant vigor and loss of stand.
These experiments indicate wheel traffic in alfalfa hay fields is responsible for severe reduction in yield and stand life. Wheel traffic on sandy or medium texture soils also limits the development of alfalfa roots by compaction. Mechanical damage to crowns and regrowth shoots in treatments simulating baler, cuber or bale wagon traffic resulted in reduced plant vigor and loss of stand.
Bacterium discovered to be cause of Pierce's disease of grapevines
by Jaime G. Auger, T. A. Shalla, C. I. Kado
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE NEWLY DISCOVERED Pierce's disease bacterium could destroy large numbers of grapevines and render parts of California unfit for the culture of common grape varieties. The disease has already destroyed at least 75,000 acres of grapevines in four major epidemics. In certain areas, it remains endemic. Aside from California, the disease has affected states along the Gulf coast and southeastern seaboard.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE NEWLY DISCOVERED Pierce's disease bacterium could destroy large numbers of grapevines and render parts of California unfit for the culture of common grape varieties. The disease has already destroyed at least 75,000 acres of grapevines in four major epidemics. In certain areas, it remains endemic. Aside from California, the disease has affected states along the Gulf coast and southeastern seaboard.
Shot hole disease control in Almonds—by injecting fungicides into overhead sprinklers
by T. Aldrich, W. J. Moller, H. Schulbach
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE SOLID-SET, over-tree multiple-use irrigation system in almonds was evaluated during 1972 and 1973 for its usefulness in the application of chemicals for control of shot hole disease caused by the pathogen Coryneum beijerinkii. This fungus attacks leaves, fruit and twigs, resulting in leaf and fruit drop. Under severe circumstances it may cause the hulls to gum internally, affecting kernel quality. Prolonged wet weather in spring enhances disease development and sprinkler-applied water further favors spread. Well-timed chemical sprays will normally give adequate control.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE SOLID-SET, over-tree multiple-use irrigation system in almonds was evaluated during 1972 and 1973 for its usefulness in the application of chemicals for control of shot hole disease caused by the pathogen Coryneum beijerinkii. This fungus attacks leaves, fruit and twigs, resulting in leaf and fruit drop. Under severe circumstances it may cause the hulls to gum internally, affecting kernel quality. Prolonged wet weather in spring enhances disease development and sprinkler-applied water further favors spread. Well-timed chemical sprays will normally give adequate control.
Cold storage effects on fresh market peaches, nectarines & plums estimating freezing points using low temperatures to delay internal breakdown
by F. G. Mitchell, Gene Mayer, E. C. Maxie, W. W. Coates
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Fruits for fresh market distribution commonly are stored under refrigeration in or near areas where they are grown. Cold storage delays ripening. The effective marketing season is expanded, and the advantages of greater shelf life potential for the product can be passed on to the consumer. However, many varieties of California peaches, nectarines, and plums are subject to a low-temperature internal breakdown that may (1) limit the time fruit can be held and still ripened normally; or may (2) produce internal browning, (3) mealiness, or (4) combinations of the above.
Fruits for fresh market distribution commonly are stored under refrigeration in or near areas where they are grown. Cold storage delays ripening. The effective marketing season is expanded, and the advantages of greater shelf life potential for the product can be passed on to the consumer. However, many varieties of California peaches, nectarines, and plums are subject to a low-temperature internal breakdown that may (1) limit the time fruit can be held and still ripened normally; or may (2) produce internal browning, (3) mealiness, or (4) combinations of the above. The two articles presented here report research to determine the critical temperature levels at which fruit can be held with least danger of either freezing or internal breakdown. These levels are correlated with soluble solids, or fruit sugar levels. Generally, breakdown is most severe under storage between 2.2 to 5° C (36 to 41° F), and least severe at or near 0° C (32° F). Temperatures above 5° C (41° F) result in rapid tissue softening and quicker ripening. There are indications, however, that periodic exposure of low temperature fruit to temperatures in the 20 to 40° C range (68 to 104° F) delays onset of breakdown, but this requires further study.
Energy and fiber levels in dairy cow rations
by D. L. Bath
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: High feed prices last year caused many dairymen to feed their herds poor quality roughages and to reduce both the quantity and quality of concentrates. The result was much lower milk production in many herds all over the state. In some cases, reduced milk production due to poor feeding practices resulted in less income above feed cost than if the feeding program had remained the same (in spite of high feed prices).
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: High feed prices last year caused many dairymen to feed their herds poor quality roughages and to reduce both the quantity and quality of concentrates. The result was much lower milk production in many herds all over the state. In some cases, reduced milk production due to poor feeding practices resulted in less income above feed cost than if the feeding program had remained the same (in spite of high feed prices).

News and Opinion

Freedom—and responsibility
by J. B. Kendrick
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 28, No.10

Cover:  Post-harvest wheel traffic reduced alfalfa stand and root development on sandy loam soil as shown in this photo taken during experiments at the San Joaquin Valley Research and Extension Center, Parlier.
October 1974
Volume 28, Number 10

Research articles

Energy and Agriculture economic perspectives
by J. G. Youde, H. O. Carter
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Although increased costs resulting from higher prices for energy-related needs on the farm appear to be the most obvious problem, world marketing complications resulting from the “energy crisis”—not production costs-will also create problems for U. S. agriculture in the next several years.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Although increased costs resulting from higher prices for energy-related needs on the farm appear to be the most obvious problem, world marketing complications resulting from the “energy crisis”—not production costs-will also create problems for U. S. agriculture in the next several years.
Influence of wheel traffic on yield and stand longevity of Alfalfa
by R. Sheesley, D. W. Grimes, W. D. McClell, C. G. Summers, V. Marble
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: These experiments indicate wheel traffic in alfalfa hay fields is responsible for severe reduction in yield and stand life. Wheel traffic on sandy or medium texture soils also limits the development of alfalfa roots by compaction. Mechanical damage to crowns and regrowth shoots in treatments simulating baler, cuber or bale wagon traffic resulted in reduced plant vigor and loss of stand.
These experiments indicate wheel traffic in alfalfa hay fields is responsible for severe reduction in yield and stand life. Wheel traffic on sandy or medium texture soils also limits the development of alfalfa roots by compaction. Mechanical damage to crowns and regrowth shoots in treatments simulating baler, cuber or bale wagon traffic resulted in reduced plant vigor and loss of stand.
Bacterium discovered to be cause of Pierce's disease of grapevines
by Jaime G. Auger, T. A. Shalla, C. I. Kado
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE NEWLY DISCOVERED Pierce's disease bacterium could destroy large numbers of grapevines and render parts of California unfit for the culture of common grape varieties. The disease has already destroyed at least 75,000 acres of grapevines in four major epidemics. In certain areas, it remains endemic. Aside from California, the disease has affected states along the Gulf coast and southeastern seaboard.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE NEWLY DISCOVERED Pierce's disease bacterium could destroy large numbers of grapevines and render parts of California unfit for the culture of common grape varieties. The disease has already destroyed at least 75,000 acres of grapevines in four major epidemics. In certain areas, it remains endemic. Aside from California, the disease has affected states along the Gulf coast and southeastern seaboard.
Shot hole disease control in Almonds—by injecting fungicides into overhead sprinklers
by T. Aldrich, W. J. Moller, H. Schulbach
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE SOLID-SET, over-tree multiple-use irrigation system in almonds was evaluated during 1972 and 1973 for its usefulness in the application of chemicals for control of shot hole disease caused by the pathogen Coryneum beijerinkii. This fungus attacks leaves, fruit and twigs, resulting in leaf and fruit drop. Under severe circumstances it may cause the hulls to gum internally, affecting kernel quality. Prolonged wet weather in spring enhances disease development and sprinkler-applied water further favors spread. Well-timed chemical sprays will normally give adequate control.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE SOLID-SET, over-tree multiple-use irrigation system in almonds was evaluated during 1972 and 1973 for its usefulness in the application of chemicals for control of shot hole disease caused by the pathogen Coryneum beijerinkii. This fungus attacks leaves, fruit and twigs, resulting in leaf and fruit drop. Under severe circumstances it may cause the hulls to gum internally, affecting kernel quality. Prolonged wet weather in spring enhances disease development and sprinkler-applied water further favors spread. Well-timed chemical sprays will normally give adequate control.
Cold storage effects on fresh market peaches, nectarines & plums estimating freezing points using low temperatures to delay internal breakdown
by F. G. Mitchell, Gene Mayer, E. C. Maxie, W. W. Coates
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Fruits for fresh market distribution commonly are stored under refrigeration in or near areas where they are grown. Cold storage delays ripening. The effective marketing season is expanded, and the advantages of greater shelf life potential for the product can be passed on to the consumer. However, many varieties of California peaches, nectarines, and plums are subject to a low-temperature internal breakdown that may (1) limit the time fruit can be held and still ripened normally; or may (2) produce internal browning, (3) mealiness, or (4) combinations of the above.
Fruits for fresh market distribution commonly are stored under refrigeration in or near areas where they are grown. Cold storage delays ripening. The effective marketing season is expanded, and the advantages of greater shelf life potential for the product can be passed on to the consumer. However, many varieties of California peaches, nectarines, and plums are subject to a low-temperature internal breakdown that may (1) limit the time fruit can be held and still ripened normally; or may (2) produce internal browning, (3) mealiness, or (4) combinations of the above. The two articles presented here report research to determine the critical temperature levels at which fruit can be held with least danger of either freezing or internal breakdown. These levels are correlated with soluble solids, or fruit sugar levels. Generally, breakdown is most severe under storage between 2.2 to 5° C (36 to 41° F), and least severe at or near 0° C (32° F). Temperatures above 5° C (41° F) result in rapid tissue softening and quicker ripening. There are indications, however, that periodic exposure of low temperature fruit to temperatures in the 20 to 40° C range (68 to 104° F) delays onset of breakdown, but this requires further study.
Energy and fiber levels in dairy cow rations
by D. L. Bath
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: High feed prices last year caused many dairymen to feed their herds poor quality roughages and to reduce both the quantity and quality of concentrates. The result was much lower milk production in many herds all over the state. In some cases, reduced milk production due to poor feeding practices resulted in less income above feed cost than if the feeding program had remained the same (in spite of high feed prices).
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: High feed prices last year caused many dairymen to feed their herds poor quality roughages and to reduce both the quantity and quality of concentrates. The result was much lower milk production in many herds all over the state. In some cases, reduced milk production due to poor feeding practices resulted in less income above feed cost than if the feeding program had remained the same (in spite of high feed prices).

News and Opinion

Freedom—and responsibility
by J. B. Kendrick
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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