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California Agriculture, Vol. 24, No.9

Cover:  "Rusty rib" visible on Climax variety of head lettuce (A) above left - after seven days of storag at 35* F - contrasts sharply with resistant varieties: Forty-Niner (B) above right, Golden State D (C) below left, and Vanguard (D) below right - all showing no symptoms. Use of resistant varieties appears to be the only way to avoid this disorder, as well as "internal rib necrosis," both of which were serious problems for Imperial Valley lettuce growers during the last two winter seasons.
September 1970
Volume 24, Number 9

Research articles

Reclamation of a Coachella Valley grape ranch by changes in levelling, irrigation, and water source
by D. D. Halsey, J. R. Spencer, D. Mulder
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: A poorly drained Coachella Valley vineyard that suffered the loss of half its vines from salt damage has been reclaimed in six years by re-levelling the ground, changing the irrigation practices, and switching from the use of the highly saline Colorado River water to the use of a high-quality well water.
A poorly drained Coachella Valley vineyard that suffered the loss of half its vines from salt damage has been reclaimed in six years by re-levelling the ground, changing the irrigation practices, and switching from the use of the highly saline Colorado River water to the use of a high-quality well water.
Construction and placement of observation wells is critical in evaluation of tile drain lines
by Dean D. Halsey
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Studies reported in the accompanying article of possible causes of poor drainage (despite tile line installations), have also shown that great care must be taken in the construction and location of observation wells used to measure the water table. Open auger holes may be useful to the farmer in determining the water table at one specific time, but are not satisfactory for repeated measurements, especially in unstable soil. Perforated and wrapped plastic wells are desirable for this purpose. For determining the causes of drain failure, however, a wrapped piezometer is recommended because pressures must be determined at specific points. This article discusses the proper construction and placement of observation wells.
Studies reported in the accompanying article of possible causes of poor drainage (despite tile line installations), have also shown that great care must be taken in the construction and location of observation wells used to measure the water table. Open auger holes may be useful to the farmer in determining the water table at one specific time, but are not satisfactory for repeated measurements, especially in unstable soil. Perforated and wrapped plastic wells are desirable for this purpose. For determining the causes of drain failure, however, a wrapped piezometer is recommended because pressures must be determined at specific points. This article discusses the proper construction and placement of observation wells.
Internal rib necrosis head lettuce in Imperial Valley
by Hunter Johnson, D. R. Woodruff, T. W. Whitaker
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Planting resistant varieties appears to be today's only solution to the closely related Imperial Valley lettuce problems of (I) internal rib necrosis (see photo) which develops in the field during maturity, and (2) rusty rib (see cover) which develops after harvest during cold storage. The popular variety Climax is highly susceptible to both.
Planting resistant varieties appears to be today's only solution to the closely related Imperial Valley lettuce problems of (I) internal rib necrosis (see photo) which develops in the field during maturity, and (2) rusty rib (see cover) which develops after harvest during cold storage. The popular variety Climax is highly susceptible to both.
Feedlot performance… steers vs. heifers
by Reuben Albaugh, W. N. Garrett
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: GOOD TO CHOICE HEIFERS are discounted from one to three dollars per hundredweight on most U. S. markets. This is true for live weight as well as for wholesale carcasses. On the other hand, Good to Choice ewe lambs and gilts bring the same price as wether lambs and fat barrows of equal grade, for both live animals and for carcasses.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: GOOD TO CHOICE HEIFERS are discounted from one to three dollars per hundredweight on most U. S. markets. This is true for live weight as well as for wholesale carcasses. On the other hand, Good to Choice ewe lambs and gilts bring the same price as wether lambs and fat barrows of equal grade, for both live animals and for carcasses.
Antioxidants reduce grape yield reductions from photochemical smog
by C. R. Thompson, Gerrit Kats
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: INJURY TO GRAPES by Los Angeles type (photochemical) smog was recognized as early as 1957. The component of this mixture which causes the most damage is ozone. A “stipple” condition of leaves characterized by small brown areas of dead cells develops where smog is heavy, usually in May or early June. As the season progresses these leaves turn bronze and drop. Some conifers develop a yellow mottle on the needles which progresses, with continued exposure to ozone, to severe chlorosis and defoliation. Citrus may develop irregular-shaped brown to black spots on the upper leaf suface.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: INJURY TO GRAPES by Los Angeles type (photochemical) smog was recognized as early as 1957. The component of this mixture which causes the most damage is ozone. A “stipple” condition of leaves characterized by small brown areas of dead cells develops where smog is heavy, usually in May or early June. As the season progresses these leaves turn bronze and drop. Some conifers develop a yellow mottle on the needles which progresses, with continued exposure to ozone, to severe chlorosis and defoliation. Citrus may develop irregular-shaped brown to black spots on the upper leaf suface.
Rice straw utilization by livestock
by W. J. Clawson, W. N. Garrett
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Population pressures, plus the increased awareness of the need for environmental improvement, are limiting the use of burning as a method for disposing of all agricultural wastes, and rice straw is no exception. Producers are actively seeking alternate methods for disposal, or use, of the four tons of straw produced per acre on an average rice field in California. The summary reported here is from a detailed study of literature on the utilization of rice straw by livestock (available from local Farm Advisors as Agricultural Extension Service Publication MA—1). Further studies are in progress.
Population pressures, plus the increased awareness of the need for environmental improvement, are limiting the use of burning as a method for disposing of all agricultural wastes, and rice straw is no exception. Producers are actively seeking alternate methods for disposal, or use, of the four tons of straw produced per acre on an average rice field in California. The summary reported here is from a detailed study of literature on the utilization of rice straw by livestock (available from local Farm Advisors as Agricultural Extension Service Publication MA—1). Further studies are in progress.
Streptomycin control of pear fireblight in California in —1968 and 1969 field tests
by J. Blair Bailey, Gordon W. Morehead
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: STREPTOMYCIN was registered for use in controlling fireblight of pome fruit on the West Coast prior to 1968, however, application was restricted to no later than 90 days before harvest; and cancellation of this use had been under consideration because of insufficient residue data.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: STREPTOMYCIN was registered for use in controlling fireblight of pome fruit on the West Coast prior to 1968, however, application was restricted to no later than 90 days before harvest; and cancellation of this use had been under consideration because of insufficient residue data.

General Information

Pesticide residues in fruit harvesting
by Editors
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 24, No.9

Cover:  "Rusty rib" visible on Climax variety of head lettuce (A) above left - after seven days of storag at 35* F - contrasts sharply with resistant varieties: Forty-Niner (B) above right, Golden State D (C) below left, and Vanguard (D) below right - all showing no symptoms. Use of resistant varieties appears to be the only way to avoid this disorder, as well as "internal rib necrosis," both of which were serious problems for Imperial Valley lettuce growers during the last two winter seasons.
September 1970
Volume 24, Number 9

Research articles

Reclamation of a Coachella Valley grape ranch by changes in levelling, irrigation, and water source
by D. D. Halsey, J. R. Spencer, D. Mulder
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: A poorly drained Coachella Valley vineyard that suffered the loss of half its vines from salt damage has been reclaimed in six years by re-levelling the ground, changing the irrigation practices, and switching from the use of the highly saline Colorado River water to the use of a high-quality well water.
A poorly drained Coachella Valley vineyard that suffered the loss of half its vines from salt damage has been reclaimed in six years by re-levelling the ground, changing the irrigation practices, and switching from the use of the highly saline Colorado River water to the use of a high-quality well water.
Construction and placement of observation wells is critical in evaluation of tile drain lines
by Dean D. Halsey
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Studies reported in the accompanying article of possible causes of poor drainage (despite tile line installations), have also shown that great care must be taken in the construction and location of observation wells used to measure the water table. Open auger holes may be useful to the farmer in determining the water table at one specific time, but are not satisfactory for repeated measurements, especially in unstable soil. Perforated and wrapped plastic wells are desirable for this purpose. For determining the causes of drain failure, however, a wrapped piezometer is recommended because pressures must be determined at specific points. This article discusses the proper construction and placement of observation wells.
Studies reported in the accompanying article of possible causes of poor drainage (despite tile line installations), have also shown that great care must be taken in the construction and location of observation wells used to measure the water table. Open auger holes may be useful to the farmer in determining the water table at one specific time, but are not satisfactory for repeated measurements, especially in unstable soil. Perforated and wrapped plastic wells are desirable for this purpose. For determining the causes of drain failure, however, a wrapped piezometer is recommended because pressures must be determined at specific points. This article discusses the proper construction and placement of observation wells.
Internal rib necrosis head lettuce in Imperial Valley
by Hunter Johnson, D. R. Woodruff, T. W. Whitaker
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Planting resistant varieties appears to be today's only solution to the closely related Imperial Valley lettuce problems of (I) internal rib necrosis (see photo) which develops in the field during maturity, and (2) rusty rib (see cover) which develops after harvest during cold storage. The popular variety Climax is highly susceptible to both.
Planting resistant varieties appears to be today's only solution to the closely related Imperial Valley lettuce problems of (I) internal rib necrosis (see photo) which develops in the field during maturity, and (2) rusty rib (see cover) which develops after harvest during cold storage. The popular variety Climax is highly susceptible to both.
Feedlot performance… steers vs. heifers
by Reuben Albaugh, W. N. Garrett
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: GOOD TO CHOICE HEIFERS are discounted from one to three dollars per hundredweight on most U. S. markets. This is true for live weight as well as for wholesale carcasses. On the other hand, Good to Choice ewe lambs and gilts bring the same price as wether lambs and fat barrows of equal grade, for both live animals and for carcasses.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: GOOD TO CHOICE HEIFERS are discounted from one to three dollars per hundredweight on most U. S. markets. This is true for live weight as well as for wholesale carcasses. On the other hand, Good to Choice ewe lambs and gilts bring the same price as wether lambs and fat barrows of equal grade, for both live animals and for carcasses.
Antioxidants reduce grape yield reductions from photochemical smog
by C. R. Thompson, Gerrit Kats
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: INJURY TO GRAPES by Los Angeles type (photochemical) smog was recognized as early as 1957. The component of this mixture which causes the most damage is ozone. A “stipple” condition of leaves characterized by small brown areas of dead cells develops where smog is heavy, usually in May or early June. As the season progresses these leaves turn bronze and drop. Some conifers develop a yellow mottle on the needles which progresses, with continued exposure to ozone, to severe chlorosis and defoliation. Citrus may develop irregular-shaped brown to black spots on the upper leaf suface.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: INJURY TO GRAPES by Los Angeles type (photochemical) smog was recognized as early as 1957. The component of this mixture which causes the most damage is ozone. A “stipple” condition of leaves characterized by small brown areas of dead cells develops where smog is heavy, usually in May or early June. As the season progresses these leaves turn bronze and drop. Some conifers develop a yellow mottle on the needles which progresses, with continued exposure to ozone, to severe chlorosis and defoliation. Citrus may develop irregular-shaped brown to black spots on the upper leaf suface.
Rice straw utilization by livestock
by W. J. Clawson, W. N. Garrett
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Population pressures, plus the increased awareness of the need for environmental improvement, are limiting the use of burning as a method for disposing of all agricultural wastes, and rice straw is no exception. Producers are actively seeking alternate methods for disposal, or use, of the four tons of straw produced per acre on an average rice field in California. The summary reported here is from a detailed study of literature on the utilization of rice straw by livestock (available from local Farm Advisors as Agricultural Extension Service Publication MA—1). Further studies are in progress.
Population pressures, plus the increased awareness of the need for environmental improvement, are limiting the use of burning as a method for disposing of all agricultural wastes, and rice straw is no exception. Producers are actively seeking alternate methods for disposal, or use, of the four tons of straw produced per acre on an average rice field in California. The summary reported here is from a detailed study of literature on the utilization of rice straw by livestock (available from local Farm Advisors as Agricultural Extension Service Publication MA—1). Further studies are in progress.
Streptomycin control of pear fireblight in California in —1968 and 1969 field tests
by J. Blair Bailey, Gordon W. Morehead
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: STREPTOMYCIN was registered for use in controlling fireblight of pome fruit on the West Coast prior to 1968, however, application was restricted to no later than 90 days before harvest; and cancellation of this use had been under consideration because of insufficient residue data.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: STREPTOMYCIN was registered for use in controlling fireblight of pome fruit on the West Coast prior to 1968, however, application was restricted to no later than 90 days before harvest; and cancellation of this use had been under consideration because of insufficient residue data.

General Information

Pesticide residues in fruit harvesting
by Editors
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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