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California Agriculture, Vol. 24, No.2

Icing to prevent freezing
February 1970
Volume 24, Number 2

Research articles

Ethrel effects on fruit ripening of peppers
by William L. Sims, H. Bill Collins, Brent L. Gledhill
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Studies with ethrel (2-chloroethyl-phosphonic acid) on tomatoes have demonstrated the effects of this chemical on fruit ripening (see california agriculture July 1969). Preliminary greenhouse studies at in 1968 indicated that Ethrel would also hasten the ripening of chili peppers (variety California). Fruits turned a red ripe color eight days after a treatment at 100 ppm (photo 2). The plants were sprayed to run-off when the first fruits began to color. Concentrations of 250 and 500 ppm caused complete defoliation of the leaves and fruit abscission in five days (photos 3 and 4).
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Studies with ethrel (2-chloroethyl-phosphonic acid) on tomatoes have demonstrated the effects of this chemical on fruit ripening (see california agriculture July 1969). Preliminary greenhouse studies at in 1968 indicated that Ethrel would also hasten the ripening of chili peppers (variety California). Fruits turned a red ripe color eight days after a treatment at 100 ppm (photo 2). The plants were sprayed to run-off when the first fruits began to color. Concentrations of 250 and 500 ppm caused complete defoliation of the leaves and fruit abscission in five days (photos 3 and 4).
An economic analysis questions: Central sorting of cannery tomatoes
by D. May, M. P. Zobel, R. A. Brendler, P. S. Parsons
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: CENTRAL SORTING of cannery tomatoes has been used to some extent in most tomato growing areas of California. This article is not intended either as a criticism or as a recommendation, but rather as a brief economic appraisal of the system. The table shows the itemized costs per ton of tomatoes for sorting operations in California. The average of $12.28 per ton is in line with custom harvesting costs as well as costs for many growers with yields averaging 17.6 tons per acre.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: CENTRAL SORTING of cannery tomatoes has been used to some extent in most tomato growing areas of California. This article is not intended either as a criticism or as a recommendation, but rather as a brief economic appraisal of the system. The table shows the itemized costs per ton of tomatoes for sorting operations in California. The average of $12.28 per ton is in line with custom harvesting costs as well as costs for many growers with yields averaging 17.6 tons per acre.
Frost control tests with lettuce and alfalfa: Blanket of ice keeps plants from freezing
by Frank E. Robinson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Icicles visible in photo above, were hanging from lettuce plants that had been sprinkled for frost protection by ice-coating. Photo to right, above, shows ice beginning to melt off the frost-protected lettuce heads. Right photo shows lettuce plants on a 24-inch grid, coated with ice. Lower photo to right shows uniformity of lettuce heads produced on flat soil surface with grid system. Photo below shows alfalfa plants encased in one-half inch of ice for frost protection.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Icicles visible in photo above, were hanging from lettuce plants that had been sprinkled for frost protection by ice-coating. Photo to right, above, shows ice beginning to melt off the frost-protected lettuce heads. Right photo shows lettuce plants on a 24-inch grid, coated with ice. Lower photo to right shows uniformity of lettuce heads produced on flat soil surface with grid system. Photo below shows alfalfa plants encased in one-half inch of ice for frost protection.
Simazine for weed control in orchards
by A. Lange, C. Elmore, B. Fischer, L. Buschmann, N. Ross
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: SIMAZINE (PRINCEP), a persistent pre-emergence herbicide, has given broad-spectrum weed control in orchard crops. Generally it has been used by orchardists with excellent results. As it depends on water to activate it and move it into the soil, simazine's effectiveness is dependent on soil environment and the cultural practices employed.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: SIMAZINE (PRINCEP), a persistent pre-emergence herbicide, has given broad-spectrum weed control in orchard crops. Generally it has been used by orchardists with excellent results. As it depends on water to activate it and move it into the soil, simazine's effectiveness is dependent on soil environment and the cultural practices employed.
Effects of soil moisture asparagus at two conditions on nitrogen levels
by F. H. Takatori, G. W. Cannell, C. W. Asbell
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA asparagus growers operate under diverse climatic conditions and soil types, and have many questions on such problems as frequency of irrigation, rates of nitrogen fertilizer, and the total quantity of water to apply. This study was initiated to obtain information on the relationship of yield responses to various soil moisture conditions on one soil type under one set of growing conditions with the possibility of then extrapolating water requirements under different growing conditions.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA asparagus growers operate under diverse climatic conditions and soil types, and have many questions on such problems as frequency of irrigation, rates of nitrogen fertilizer, and the total quantity of water to apply. This study was initiated to obtain information on the relationship of yield responses to various soil moisture conditions on one soil type under one set of growing conditions with the possibility of then extrapolating water requirements under different growing conditions.
Bulls vs… steers conventional and Russian castrates amd effects of stilbestrol
by W. J. Clawson, Reuben Albaugh, Don Petersen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Two significant findings of this experiment were: (1) Russian castrates were intermediate between steers and bulls in all phases of production (preweaning and postweaning), although these differences were not significant; (2) nursing steer calves implanted with 30 mg stilbestrol, and again as they entered the feedlot for finishing, performed just as well as those that were implanted first upon entering the feedlot—however, the double-implant animals produced carcasses that were 33 lbs heavier (cold weight) than those that were implanted only once (indicating that the cow-calf operator, as well as the cattle feeder, can secure benefits from stilbestrol implantation). Bulls again outperformed steers and Russian castrates (substantiating recent reports by other researchers) in daily gain, carcass index, and cutability as well as feed efficiency.
Two significant findings of this experiment were: (1) Russian castrates were intermediate between steers and bulls in all phases of production (preweaning and postweaning), although these differences were not significant; (2) nursing steer calves implanted with 30 mg stilbestrol, and again as they entered the feedlot for finishing, performed just as well as those that were implanted first upon entering the feedlot—however, the double-implant animals produced carcasses that were 33 lbs heavier (cold weight) than those that were implanted only once (indicating that the cow-calf operator, as well as the cattle feeder, can secure benefits from stilbestrol implantation). Bulls again outperformed steers and Russian castrates (substantiating recent reports by other researchers) in daily gain, carcass index, and cutability as well as feed efficiency.
Crop adaptation to high soil-water conditions
by S. B. Varade, J. Letey, L. H. Stolzy
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE OXYGEN required by plants for respiration usually reaches the root system from the open atmosphere by diffusing through the air spaces in the soil, and by then dissolving in the water surrounding the root and diffusing into the root. However, rice and some other plants can grow very well under completely flooded conditions. When the soil is flooded, the air space is eliminated in the soil. Oxygen, therefore, cannot move through the soil system to the roots.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE OXYGEN required by plants for respiration usually reaches the root system from the open atmosphere by diffusing through the air spaces in the soil, and by then dissolving in the water surrounding the root and diffusing into the root. However, rice and some other plants can grow very well under completely flooded conditions. When the soil is flooded, the air space is eliminated in the soil. Oxygen, therefore, cannot move through the soil system to the roots.

Editorial, News, Letters and Science Briefs

San Joaquin Center research emphasis: People's needs
by William B. Hewitt
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 24, No.2

Icing to prevent freezing
February 1970
Volume 24, Number 2

Research articles

Ethrel effects on fruit ripening of peppers
by William L. Sims, H. Bill Collins, Brent L. Gledhill
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Studies with ethrel (2-chloroethyl-phosphonic acid) on tomatoes have demonstrated the effects of this chemical on fruit ripening (see california agriculture July 1969). Preliminary greenhouse studies at in 1968 indicated that Ethrel would also hasten the ripening of chili peppers (variety California). Fruits turned a red ripe color eight days after a treatment at 100 ppm (photo 2). The plants were sprayed to run-off when the first fruits began to color. Concentrations of 250 and 500 ppm caused complete defoliation of the leaves and fruit abscission in five days (photos 3 and 4).
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Studies with ethrel (2-chloroethyl-phosphonic acid) on tomatoes have demonstrated the effects of this chemical on fruit ripening (see california agriculture July 1969). Preliminary greenhouse studies at in 1968 indicated that Ethrel would also hasten the ripening of chili peppers (variety California). Fruits turned a red ripe color eight days after a treatment at 100 ppm (photo 2). The plants were sprayed to run-off when the first fruits began to color. Concentrations of 250 and 500 ppm caused complete defoliation of the leaves and fruit abscission in five days (photos 3 and 4).
An economic analysis questions: Central sorting of cannery tomatoes
by D. May, M. P. Zobel, R. A. Brendler, P. S. Parsons
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: CENTRAL SORTING of cannery tomatoes has been used to some extent in most tomato growing areas of California. This article is not intended either as a criticism or as a recommendation, but rather as a brief economic appraisal of the system. The table shows the itemized costs per ton of tomatoes for sorting operations in California. The average of $12.28 per ton is in line with custom harvesting costs as well as costs for many growers with yields averaging 17.6 tons per acre.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: CENTRAL SORTING of cannery tomatoes has been used to some extent in most tomato growing areas of California. This article is not intended either as a criticism or as a recommendation, but rather as a brief economic appraisal of the system. The table shows the itemized costs per ton of tomatoes for sorting operations in California. The average of $12.28 per ton is in line with custom harvesting costs as well as costs for many growers with yields averaging 17.6 tons per acre.
Frost control tests with lettuce and alfalfa: Blanket of ice keeps plants from freezing
by Frank E. Robinson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Icicles visible in photo above, were hanging from lettuce plants that had been sprinkled for frost protection by ice-coating. Photo to right, above, shows ice beginning to melt off the frost-protected lettuce heads. Right photo shows lettuce plants on a 24-inch grid, coated with ice. Lower photo to right shows uniformity of lettuce heads produced on flat soil surface with grid system. Photo below shows alfalfa plants encased in one-half inch of ice for frost protection.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: Icicles visible in photo above, were hanging from lettuce plants that had been sprinkled for frost protection by ice-coating. Photo to right, above, shows ice beginning to melt off the frost-protected lettuce heads. Right photo shows lettuce plants on a 24-inch grid, coated with ice. Lower photo to right shows uniformity of lettuce heads produced on flat soil surface with grid system. Photo below shows alfalfa plants encased in one-half inch of ice for frost protection.
Simazine for weed control in orchards
by A. Lange, C. Elmore, B. Fischer, L. Buschmann, N. Ross
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: SIMAZINE (PRINCEP), a persistent pre-emergence herbicide, has given broad-spectrum weed control in orchard crops. Generally it has been used by orchardists with excellent results. As it depends on water to activate it and move it into the soil, simazine's effectiveness is dependent on soil environment and the cultural practices employed.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: SIMAZINE (PRINCEP), a persistent pre-emergence herbicide, has given broad-spectrum weed control in orchard crops. Generally it has been used by orchardists with excellent results. As it depends on water to activate it and move it into the soil, simazine's effectiveness is dependent on soil environment and the cultural practices employed.
Effects of soil moisture asparagus at two conditions on nitrogen levels
by F. H. Takatori, G. W. Cannell, C. W. Asbell
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA asparagus growers operate under diverse climatic conditions and soil types, and have many questions on such problems as frequency of irrigation, rates of nitrogen fertilizer, and the total quantity of water to apply. This study was initiated to obtain information on the relationship of yield responses to various soil moisture conditions on one soil type under one set of growing conditions with the possibility of then extrapolating water requirements under different growing conditions.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA asparagus growers operate under diverse climatic conditions and soil types, and have many questions on such problems as frequency of irrigation, rates of nitrogen fertilizer, and the total quantity of water to apply. This study was initiated to obtain information on the relationship of yield responses to various soil moisture conditions on one soil type under one set of growing conditions with the possibility of then extrapolating water requirements under different growing conditions.
Bulls vs… steers conventional and Russian castrates amd effects of stilbestrol
by W. J. Clawson, Reuben Albaugh, Don Petersen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Two significant findings of this experiment were: (1) Russian castrates were intermediate between steers and bulls in all phases of production (preweaning and postweaning), although these differences were not significant; (2) nursing steer calves implanted with 30 mg stilbestrol, and again as they entered the feedlot for finishing, performed just as well as those that were implanted first upon entering the feedlot—however, the double-implant animals produced carcasses that were 33 lbs heavier (cold weight) than those that were implanted only once (indicating that the cow-calf operator, as well as the cattle feeder, can secure benefits from stilbestrol implantation). Bulls again outperformed steers and Russian castrates (substantiating recent reports by other researchers) in daily gain, carcass index, and cutability as well as feed efficiency.
Two significant findings of this experiment were: (1) Russian castrates were intermediate between steers and bulls in all phases of production (preweaning and postweaning), although these differences were not significant; (2) nursing steer calves implanted with 30 mg stilbestrol, and again as they entered the feedlot for finishing, performed just as well as those that were implanted first upon entering the feedlot—however, the double-implant animals produced carcasses that were 33 lbs heavier (cold weight) than those that were implanted only once (indicating that the cow-calf operator, as well as the cattle feeder, can secure benefits from stilbestrol implantation). Bulls again outperformed steers and Russian castrates (substantiating recent reports by other researchers) in daily gain, carcass index, and cutability as well as feed efficiency.
Crop adaptation to high soil-water conditions
by S. B. Varade, J. Letey, L. H. Stolzy
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE OXYGEN required by plants for respiration usually reaches the root system from the open atmosphere by diffusing through the air spaces in the soil, and by then dissolving in the water surrounding the root and diffusing into the root. However, rice and some other plants can grow very well under completely flooded conditions. When the soil is flooded, the air space is eliminated in the soil. Oxygen, therefore, cannot move through the soil system to the roots.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE OXYGEN required by plants for respiration usually reaches the root system from the open atmosphere by diffusing through the air spaces in the soil, and by then dissolving in the water surrounding the root and diffusing into the root. However, rice and some other plants can grow very well under completely flooded conditions. When the soil is flooded, the air space is eliminated in the soil. Oxygen, therefore, cannot move through the soil system to the roots.

Editorial, News, Letters and Science Briefs

San Joaquin Center research emphasis: People's needs
by William B. Hewitt
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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