California Agriculture
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California Agriculture, Vol. 23, No.12

Cover:  Seedfly (photo inset) was imported from Paris and has been established on California rangeland to aid fight against spread of the noxious weed tansy ragwort.
December 1969
Volume 23, Number 12

Research articles

Pesticides increase seed yields of late safflower
by Elmer C. Carlson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Pesticide applications have significantly increased safflower seed yields when treatments were made twice to late-planted, irrigated safflower. Severe bud damage and blasting often occurs because plant bloom and bud development is not underway until July or August, and the higher summer populations of lygus bugs and flower thrips feed on and injure the buds.
Pesticide applications have significantly increased safflower seed yields when treatments were made twice to late-planted, irrigated safflower. Severe bud damage and blasting often occurs because plant bloom and bud development is not underway until July or August, and the higher summer populations of lygus bugs and flower thrips feed on and injure the buds.
Excised honeybee abdomens and the biosonic analyzer system aid pharmacological and toxicological investigation
by Roy J. Pence
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Dorsal and ventral views (right photos) of excised honeybee abdomens showing setae-covered plates which move over sandpaper surface of bioanalyzer receptacle. Sketch below shows segments of abdomen and diagram to right shows operation of the biosonic analyzer: (1) receptacle cone of fine grade sandpaper with (2) abdomen in place, sending vibrations to (3) piezo-electric element, producing electrical signal to (4) amplifier from which it is transcribed by (5) servo-chart recorder—or can be heard in (5a) earphones. Lower photo shows author checking the recorder chart of the biosonic analyzer while also listening for changes in frequency of vibration through earphones.
Dorsal and ventral views (right photos) of excised honeybee abdomens showing setae-covered plates which move over sandpaper surface of bioanalyzer receptacle. Sketch below shows segments of abdomen and diagram to right shows operation of the biosonic analyzer: (1) receptacle cone of fine grade sandpaper with (2) abdomen in place, sending vibrations to (3) piezo-electric element, producing electrical signal to (4) amplifier from which it is transcribed by (5) servo-chart recorder—or can be heard in (5a) earphones. Lower photo shows author checking the recorder chart of the biosonic analyzer while also listening for changes in frequency of vibration through earphones.
Mechanized potting in gallon containers speeds nursery marketing of ornamentals
by F. K. Aljibury, R. G. Curley, W. H. Humphrey, William Tomlinsen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE PRODUCTION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS in gallon-size containers is a major enterprise in California. An estimated 350 nurseries in the state produced over 80 million dollars worth of container grown plants in 1967 (not including cut flowers). The potting of plants in gallon containers is one of the principal operations in most nurseries and at the same time a major labor requirement. Potting in gallon cans is still largely a hand operation although in a few cases it has been partially mechanized. The project described here attempts to better mechanize this operation and to thus minimize cost and labor requirements.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE PRODUCTION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS in gallon-size containers is a major enterprise in California. An estimated 350 nurseries in the state produced over 80 million dollars worth of container grown plants in 1967 (not including cut flowers). The potting of plants in gallon containers is one of the principal operations in most nurseries and at the same time a major labor requirement. Potting in gallon cans is still largely a hand operation although in a few cases it has been partially mechanized. The project described here attempts to better mechanize this operation and to thus minimize cost and labor requirements.
Tansy ragwort control aided by the establishment of seedfly from Paris
by Kenneth E. Frick
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: The seedfly Hylemya seneciella (Meade) joins the cinnabar moth in efforts at biological control of the noxious weed, tansy ragwort, on California rangeland.
The seedfly Hylemya seneciella (Meade) joins the cinnabar moth in efforts at biological control of the noxious weed, tansy ragwort, on California rangeland.
Noninfectious bud failure of almonds in California (1) the nature and origin
by D. E. Kester
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Noninfectious bud failure (BF) is a disorder caused by a peculiar genetic abnormality characteristic of certain almond varieties. It is a serious economic problem in that many thousands of trees have had to be replaced and at least one variety, Jordanolo, is being eliminated because of its susceptibility to BF. The disorder is expressed by the failure of vegetative buds to grow in the spring. This, along with other roughbark characteristics, results in a distinctive growth pattern sometimes also described as “crazy-top.” Trees do not die but production in individual trees is reduced in proportion to the severity of the symptoms. Experimental work on the disorder can be divided into two basic problems discussed here in two separate articles. One concerns the nature of the disorder and the origin of the BF condition, and is studied in the first article. The other (studied in the second article) involves the sporadic appearance of BF in such important varieties as Nonpareil, and deals with practical methods to identify and control it.
Noninfectious bud failure (BF) is a disorder caused by a peculiar genetic abnormality characteristic of certain almond varieties. It is a serious economic problem in that many thousands of trees have had to be replaced and at least one variety, Jordanolo, is being eliminated because of its susceptibility to BF. The disorder is expressed by the failure of vegetative buds to grow in the spring. This, along with other roughbark characteristics, results in a distinctive growth pattern sometimes also described as “crazy-top.” Trees do not die but production in individual trees is reduced in proportion to the severity of the symptoms. Experimental work on the disorder can be divided into two basic problems discussed here in two separate articles. One concerns the nature of the disorder and the origin of the BF condition, and is studied in the first article. The other (studied in the second article) involves the sporadic appearance of BF in such important varieties as Nonpareil, and deals with practical methods to identify and control it.
Noninfectious bud failure of almonds in California (2) identification and control of bud failure in almond varieties
by D. E. Kester, A. D. Rizzi, H. E. Williams, R. W. Jones
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: This article describes the current status, identification, and control, of noninfectious bud failure (BF) as it affects particular almond varieties in California. Characteristics of the disorder were described in the accompanying article. A recent survey taken to estimate the prevalence of BF in affected varieties in the almond districts of California is summarized in tables 1, 2, and 3, and is discussed here.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: This article describes the current status, identification, and control, of noninfectious bud failure (BF) as it affects particular almond varieties in California. Characteristics of the disorder were described in the accompanying article. A recent survey taken to estimate the prevalence of BF in affected varieties in the almond districts of California is summarized in tables 1, 2, and 3, and is discussed here.
Brussels sprout ring spot control with fungicides
by N. C. Welch, A. S. Greathead, D. H. Hall, T. Little
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Benomyl fungicide almost completely controlled ring spot in Brussels sprouts, and was better at the 1 per cent level of significance than all other fungicides included in the trial. Daconil 2787 resulted in 90 per cent control and was significantly lower in number of lesions per leaf at the 1 per cent level than were maneb and maneb plus zinc compounds which gave 72 per cent control. Some degree of control (42 to 50 per cent) was given by captan, copper and thiram.
Benomyl fungicide almost completely controlled ring spot in Brussels sprouts, and was better at the 1 per cent level of significance than all other fungicides included in the trial. Daconil 2787 resulted in 90 per cent control and was significantly lower in number of lesions per leaf at the 1 per cent level than were maneb and maneb plus zinc compounds which gave 72 per cent control. Some degree of control (42 to 50 per cent) was given by captan, copper and thiram.
Sweet orange germination and growth aided by water and gibberellin seed soak
by R. M. Burns, C. W. Coggins
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: The soaking of sweet orange seeds in water or various concentrations of gibberellic acid for 24 hours prior to planting increased their rate of germination under cool conditions. Larger and more uniform seedlings also followed some of the gibberellic acid seed soak treatments in these tests.
The soaking of sweet orange seeds in water or various concentrations of gibberellic acid for 24 hours prior to planting increased their rate of germination under cool conditions. Larger and more uniform seedlings also followed some of the gibberellic acid seed soak treatments in these tests.
Lettuce emergence as affected by depth of seeding
by M. Zahara
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Seeding lettuce deeper than 1/2 inch below the soil surface delays plant emergence.
Seeding lettuce deeper than 1/2 inch below the soil surface delays plant emergence.

News and Opinion

Do we still need agricultural research?
by Mack Dugger
Full text HTML  | PDF  
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California Agriculture, Vol. 23, No.12

Cover:  Seedfly (photo inset) was imported from Paris and has been established on California rangeland to aid fight against spread of the noxious weed tansy ragwort.
December 1969
Volume 23, Number 12

Research articles

Pesticides increase seed yields of late safflower
by Elmer C. Carlson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Pesticide applications have significantly increased safflower seed yields when treatments were made twice to late-planted, irrigated safflower. Severe bud damage and blasting often occurs because plant bloom and bud development is not underway until July or August, and the higher summer populations of lygus bugs and flower thrips feed on and injure the buds.
Pesticide applications have significantly increased safflower seed yields when treatments were made twice to late-planted, irrigated safflower. Severe bud damage and blasting often occurs because plant bloom and bud development is not underway until July or August, and the higher summer populations of lygus bugs and flower thrips feed on and injure the buds.
Excised honeybee abdomens and the biosonic analyzer system aid pharmacological and toxicological investigation
by Roy J. Pence
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Dorsal and ventral views (right photos) of excised honeybee abdomens showing setae-covered plates which move over sandpaper surface of bioanalyzer receptacle. Sketch below shows segments of abdomen and diagram to right shows operation of the biosonic analyzer: (1) receptacle cone of fine grade sandpaper with (2) abdomen in place, sending vibrations to (3) piezo-electric element, producing electrical signal to (4) amplifier from which it is transcribed by (5) servo-chart recorder—or can be heard in (5a) earphones. Lower photo shows author checking the recorder chart of the biosonic analyzer while also listening for changes in frequency of vibration through earphones.
Dorsal and ventral views (right photos) of excised honeybee abdomens showing setae-covered plates which move over sandpaper surface of bioanalyzer receptacle. Sketch below shows segments of abdomen and diagram to right shows operation of the biosonic analyzer: (1) receptacle cone of fine grade sandpaper with (2) abdomen in place, sending vibrations to (3) piezo-electric element, producing electrical signal to (4) amplifier from which it is transcribed by (5) servo-chart recorder—or can be heard in (5a) earphones. Lower photo shows author checking the recorder chart of the biosonic analyzer while also listening for changes in frequency of vibration through earphones.
Mechanized potting in gallon containers speeds nursery marketing of ornamentals
by F. K. Aljibury, R. G. Curley, W. H. Humphrey, William Tomlinsen
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE PRODUCTION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS in gallon-size containers is a major enterprise in California. An estimated 350 nurseries in the state produced over 80 million dollars worth of container grown plants in 1967 (not including cut flowers). The potting of plants in gallon containers is one of the principal operations in most nurseries and at the same time a major labor requirement. Potting in gallon cans is still largely a hand operation although in a few cases it has been partially mechanized. The project described here attempts to better mechanize this operation and to thus minimize cost and labor requirements.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: THE PRODUCTION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS in gallon-size containers is a major enterprise in California. An estimated 350 nurseries in the state produced over 80 million dollars worth of container grown plants in 1967 (not including cut flowers). The potting of plants in gallon containers is one of the principal operations in most nurseries and at the same time a major labor requirement. Potting in gallon cans is still largely a hand operation although in a few cases it has been partially mechanized. The project described here attempts to better mechanize this operation and to thus minimize cost and labor requirements.
Tansy ragwort control aided by the establishment of seedfly from Paris
by Kenneth E. Frick
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: The seedfly Hylemya seneciella (Meade) joins the cinnabar moth in efforts at biological control of the noxious weed, tansy ragwort, on California rangeland.
The seedfly Hylemya seneciella (Meade) joins the cinnabar moth in efforts at biological control of the noxious weed, tansy ragwort, on California rangeland.
Noninfectious bud failure of almonds in California (1) the nature and origin
by D. E. Kester
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Noninfectious bud failure (BF) is a disorder caused by a peculiar genetic abnormality characteristic of certain almond varieties. It is a serious economic problem in that many thousands of trees have had to be replaced and at least one variety, Jordanolo, is being eliminated because of its susceptibility to BF. The disorder is expressed by the failure of vegetative buds to grow in the spring. This, along with other roughbark characteristics, results in a distinctive growth pattern sometimes also described as “crazy-top.” Trees do not die but production in individual trees is reduced in proportion to the severity of the symptoms. Experimental work on the disorder can be divided into two basic problems discussed here in two separate articles. One concerns the nature of the disorder and the origin of the BF condition, and is studied in the first article. The other (studied in the second article) involves the sporadic appearance of BF in such important varieties as Nonpareil, and deals with practical methods to identify and control it.
Noninfectious bud failure (BF) is a disorder caused by a peculiar genetic abnormality characteristic of certain almond varieties. It is a serious economic problem in that many thousands of trees have had to be replaced and at least one variety, Jordanolo, is being eliminated because of its susceptibility to BF. The disorder is expressed by the failure of vegetative buds to grow in the spring. This, along with other roughbark characteristics, results in a distinctive growth pattern sometimes also described as “crazy-top.” Trees do not die but production in individual trees is reduced in proportion to the severity of the symptoms. Experimental work on the disorder can be divided into two basic problems discussed here in two separate articles. One concerns the nature of the disorder and the origin of the BF condition, and is studied in the first article. The other (studied in the second article) involves the sporadic appearance of BF in such important varieties as Nonpareil, and deals with practical methods to identify and control it.
Noninfectious bud failure of almonds in California (2) identification and control of bud failure in almond varieties
by D. E. Kester, A. D. Rizzi, H. E. Williams, R. W. Jones
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: This article describes the current status, identification, and control, of noninfectious bud failure (BF) as it affects particular almond varieties in California. Characteristics of the disorder were described in the accompanying article. A recent survey taken to estimate the prevalence of BF in affected varieties in the almond districts of California is summarized in tables 1, 2, and 3, and is discussed here.
Abstract Not Available – First paragraph follows: This article describes the current status, identification, and control, of noninfectious bud failure (BF) as it affects particular almond varieties in California. Characteristics of the disorder were described in the accompanying article. A recent survey taken to estimate the prevalence of BF in affected varieties in the almond districts of California is summarized in tables 1, 2, and 3, and is discussed here.
Brussels sprout ring spot control with fungicides
by N. C. Welch, A. S. Greathead, D. H. Hall, T. Little
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Benomyl fungicide almost completely controlled ring spot in Brussels sprouts, and was better at the 1 per cent level of significance than all other fungicides included in the trial. Daconil 2787 resulted in 90 per cent control and was significantly lower in number of lesions per leaf at the 1 per cent level than were maneb and maneb plus zinc compounds which gave 72 per cent control. Some degree of control (42 to 50 per cent) was given by captan, copper and thiram.
Benomyl fungicide almost completely controlled ring spot in Brussels sprouts, and was better at the 1 per cent level of significance than all other fungicides included in the trial. Daconil 2787 resulted in 90 per cent control and was significantly lower in number of lesions per leaf at the 1 per cent level than were maneb and maneb plus zinc compounds which gave 72 per cent control. Some degree of control (42 to 50 per cent) was given by captan, copper and thiram.
Sweet orange germination and growth aided by water and gibberellin seed soak
by R. M. Burns, C. W. Coggins
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: The soaking of sweet orange seeds in water or various concentrations of gibberellic acid for 24 hours prior to planting increased their rate of germination under cool conditions. Larger and more uniform seedlings also followed some of the gibberellic acid seed soak treatments in these tests.
The soaking of sweet orange seeds in water or various concentrations of gibberellic acid for 24 hours prior to planting increased their rate of germination under cool conditions. Larger and more uniform seedlings also followed some of the gibberellic acid seed soak treatments in these tests.
Lettuce emergence as affected by depth of seeding
by M. Zahara
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Summary Not Available – First paragraph follows: Seeding lettuce deeper than 1/2 inch below the soil surface delays plant emergence.
Seeding lettuce deeper than 1/2 inch below the soil surface delays plant emergence.

News and Opinion

Do we still need agricultural research?
by Mack Dugger
Full text HTML  | PDF  

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