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California Agriculture, Vol. 64, No.3

Life at the edge: Farming, growth and conflict
Cover:  The edges of Los Banos, a city of more than 30,000 in Merced County, are irregular, creating more opportunities for urban-agricultural conflict (pages 121, 127). Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used to more accurately assess land use, aiding in regional planning and farmland conservation (pages 118, 129).
July-September 2010
Volume 64, Number 3

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

California communities deal with conflict and adjustment at the urban-agricultural edge
by Sonja Varea Hammond, Maxwell Norton, Evan E. Schmidt, Alvin D. Sokolow
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Communities in Monterey and Merced counties were studied to understand why edge conflicts develop and how various factors affect levels of discord.
About 2.5 million agricultural acres are located adjacent or in close proximity to nonfarm residences in California, leading to widespread farm-residential conflicts. This exploratory study compared high- and low-conflict edges in four crop-growing communities in two counties. (A separate analysis of San Diego County in a sidebar compares two edge situations involving animal and nursery operations.) We present tentative generalizations about conflict variations, sources and solutions. High conflict levels were largely due to residents’ unfamiliarity with agricultural activities, although conflict levels were also related to specific farming practices. We also pose questions to guide further and more systematic research on the edge issue in California agriculture.
A new method is used to evaluate the strategic value of Fresno County farmland
by Evan E. Schmidt, James H. Thorne, Patrick Huber, Nathaniel Roth, Edward Thompson, Michael McCoy
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Applying GIS to existing land-assessment practices can serve as a model for regional farmland conservation and land-use planning.
Fresno County is a rich agricultural area that faces rapid urbanization and farmland conversion. The county is participating in a strategic, multi-county planning initiative aimed at making sustainable and regionally cohesive land-use decisions. To inform this effort, we conducted a farmland conservation assessment and identified strategic farmlands for prioritization in future conservation efforts. We identified environmental and human predictor variables that affect the viability of existing farmland, used a geographic information system (GIS) to integrate them, and created a countywide strategic farmland conservation map. We compared our analysis to status quo methods of prioritization and found that with our model the spatial output of highly valued farmland was shifted, narrowed and located adjacent to some of the county's most urbanized areas. These findings are influencing growth policies and farmland conservation planning in Fresno County.
Mitigation techniques reduce sediment in runoff from furrow-irrigated cropland
by Rachael F. Long, Blaine R. Hanson, Allan E. Fulton, Donald P. Weston
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
PAM treatments, vegetated ditches and sediment traps differ in their ability to reduce sediments in tailwater in furrow-irrigated crops.
Irrigation tailwater can transport sediments and sediment-associated agricultural pollutants to nearby waterways. To help protect the biota of surface waters, we evaluated the use of polyacrylamide (PAM, a synthetic material that flocculates sediments when added to water), vegetated ditches and sediment traps to mitigate sediment losses from furrow-irrigated fields. In a 2-year study, liquid PAM injected into irrigation source water most effectively reduced suspended-sediment concentrations in runoff from different soil types. Dry tablet and granule PAM formulations were also effective, as long as their placement in the furrows promoted their dissolution in irrigation water. Vegetated ditches resulted in intermediate reductions in suspended sediments in tailwater. The sediment traps were limited in their effectiveness by insufficient holding time for fine-grained particulates to settle out of the runoff.
Dry-season soil water repellency affects Tahoe Basin infiltration rates
by Erin C. Rice, Mark E. Grismer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Measuring rainfall infiltration rates in Tahoe soils is important to understanding runoff and erosion, and protecting lake clarity.
Lake Tahoe's declining clarity makes the identification of runoff and erosion sources and evaluation of control measures vitally important. We treated relatively undisturbed, native, forested sites of 10% to 15% slope with surfactant and used a rainfall simulator to investigate the effects of repellency. We compared infiltration measurements made by the simulator and a mini-disk infiltrometer (MDI). Runoff was produced by all plots with untreated water, but only two of 12 plots with surfactant. At volcanic soil sites, infiltration rates using surfactant exceeded those with water by only 20% when there was little litter cover, but with substantial litter the infiltration rates increased threefold. Similarly, at the granitic soil sites surfactant-enhanced infiltration rates were four times greater with scant litter, and eight times greater with substantial litter cover. Postsimulation soil moisture content and wetting depths were greater with the surfactant treatment. Excavations under surfactant treatments revealed that discontinuities in the soil's hydrophobic organic layer resulted in preferential infiltration zones in the mineral soils below.
Survey examines the adoption of perceived best management practices for almond nutrition
by Sara E. Lopus, María Paz Santibáñez, Robert H. Beede, Roger A. Duncan, John Edstrom, Franz J. A. Niederholzer, Cary J. Trexler, Patrick H. Brown
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Growers using perceived best practices tend to have larger farms; small growers may face barriers to adoption.
Fertilizer use in California agriculture has been under recent scrutiny regarding its impacts on air, surface water and groundwater quality. In June 2007, we surveyed almond growers to assess their plant nutrition practices, identify opportunities for improvement, and target research and extension needs. The majority of respondents, particularly those with large almond acreages, used fertigation to apply nitrogen; applied nitrogen coincident with periods of maximal plant demand; and collected annual tissue samples for analysis. While the survey results suggested broad compliance with the best-available management practices and are likely to indicate good nutrient-use efficiency, they also suggested that growers are uncertain about current practices to monitor orchard nutrient status and would value additional information to enable greater precision in fertilization rates and timing.
Distinctive symptoms differentiate four common types of berry shrivel disorder in grape
by Mark N. Krasnow, Mark A. Matthews, Rhonda J. Smith, Jason Benz, Ed Weber, Ken A. Shackel
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Sugar accumulation disorder, bunchstem necrosis, dehydration and sunburn can be distinguished by type and location of fruit damage.
Shriveled fruit in vineyards has several origins including sunburn, dehydration, bunchstem necrosis and the recently described sugar accumulation disorder. These disorders are often confused with one another, but they can easily be distinguished by the location or composition of shriveled fruit and the condition of the rachis (the stem structure of a cluster). Sunburn is typically exhibited only on berries that are exposed to direct sunlight, and bunchstem necrosis is typified by necrotic rachis tissue. Berries with sugar accumulation disorder exhibit low sugar concentration, whereas berries with late-season dehydration typically have above-normal sugar concentration. Berries with sugar accumulation disorder and bunchstem necrosis exhibit the sugar content when sugar accumulation ceases or stem necrosis occurs, respectively. In tests, berries with sugar accumulation disorder exhibited lower berry weight, pH and anthocyanins, as well as differences in many nitrogenous compounds compared to normally developing fruit. In one location, sugar accumulation disorder was expressed at the whole-vine level, but none of the commonly known pathogenic organisms were found.
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California Agriculture, Vol. 64, No.3

Life at the edge: Farming, growth and conflict
Cover:  The edges of Los Banos, a city of more than 30,000 in Merced County, are irregular, creating more opportunities for urban-agricultural conflict (pages 121, 127). Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used to more accurately assess land use, aiding in regional planning and farmland conservation (pages 118, 129).
July-September 2010
Volume 64, Number 3

Peer-reviewed research and review articles

California communities deal with conflict and adjustment at the urban-agricultural edge
by Sonja Varea Hammond, Maxwell Norton, Evan E. Schmidt, Alvin D. Sokolow
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Communities in Monterey and Merced counties were studied to understand why edge conflicts develop and how various factors affect levels of discord.
About 2.5 million agricultural acres are located adjacent or in close proximity to nonfarm residences in California, leading to widespread farm-residential conflicts. This exploratory study compared high- and low-conflict edges in four crop-growing communities in two counties. (A separate analysis of San Diego County in a sidebar compares two edge situations involving animal and nursery operations.) We present tentative generalizations about conflict variations, sources and solutions. High conflict levels were largely due to residents’ unfamiliarity with agricultural activities, although conflict levels were also related to specific farming practices. We also pose questions to guide further and more systematic research on the edge issue in California agriculture.
A new method is used to evaluate the strategic value of Fresno County farmland
by Evan E. Schmidt, James H. Thorne, Patrick Huber, Nathaniel Roth, Edward Thompson, Michael McCoy
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Applying GIS to existing land-assessment practices can serve as a model for regional farmland conservation and land-use planning.
Fresno County is a rich agricultural area that faces rapid urbanization and farmland conversion. The county is participating in a strategic, multi-county planning initiative aimed at making sustainable and regionally cohesive land-use decisions. To inform this effort, we conducted a farmland conservation assessment and identified strategic farmlands for prioritization in future conservation efforts. We identified environmental and human predictor variables that affect the viability of existing farmland, used a geographic information system (GIS) to integrate them, and created a countywide strategic farmland conservation map. We compared our analysis to status quo methods of prioritization and found that with our model the spatial output of highly valued farmland was shifted, narrowed and located adjacent to some of the county's most urbanized areas. These findings are influencing growth policies and farmland conservation planning in Fresno County.
Mitigation techniques reduce sediment in runoff from furrow-irrigated cropland
by Rachael F. Long, Blaine R. Hanson, Allan E. Fulton, Donald P. Weston
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
PAM treatments, vegetated ditches and sediment traps differ in their ability to reduce sediments in tailwater in furrow-irrigated crops.
Irrigation tailwater can transport sediments and sediment-associated agricultural pollutants to nearby waterways. To help protect the biota of surface waters, we evaluated the use of polyacrylamide (PAM, a synthetic material that flocculates sediments when added to water), vegetated ditches and sediment traps to mitigate sediment losses from furrow-irrigated fields. In a 2-year study, liquid PAM injected into irrigation source water most effectively reduced suspended-sediment concentrations in runoff from different soil types. Dry tablet and granule PAM formulations were also effective, as long as their placement in the furrows promoted their dissolution in irrigation water. Vegetated ditches resulted in intermediate reductions in suspended sediments in tailwater. The sediment traps were limited in their effectiveness by insufficient holding time for fine-grained particulates to settle out of the runoff.
Dry-season soil water repellency affects Tahoe Basin infiltration rates
by Erin C. Rice, Mark E. Grismer
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Measuring rainfall infiltration rates in Tahoe soils is important to understanding runoff and erosion, and protecting lake clarity.
Lake Tahoe's declining clarity makes the identification of runoff and erosion sources and evaluation of control measures vitally important. We treated relatively undisturbed, native, forested sites of 10% to 15% slope with surfactant and used a rainfall simulator to investigate the effects of repellency. We compared infiltration measurements made by the simulator and a mini-disk infiltrometer (MDI). Runoff was produced by all plots with untreated water, but only two of 12 plots with surfactant. At volcanic soil sites, infiltration rates using surfactant exceeded those with water by only 20% when there was little litter cover, but with substantial litter the infiltration rates increased threefold. Similarly, at the granitic soil sites surfactant-enhanced infiltration rates were four times greater with scant litter, and eight times greater with substantial litter cover. Postsimulation soil moisture content and wetting depths were greater with the surfactant treatment. Excavations under surfactant treatments revealed that discontinuities in the soil's hydrophobic organic layer resulted in preferential infiltration zones in the mineral soils below.
Survey examines the adoption of perceived best management practices for almond nutrition
by Sara E. Lopus, María Paz Santibáñez, Robert H. Beede, Roger A. Duncan, John Edstrom, Franz J. A. Niederholzer, Cary J. Trexler, Patrick H. Brown
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Growers using perceived best practices tend to have larger farms; small growers may face barriers to adoption.
Fertilizer use in California agriculture has been under recent scrutiny regarding its impacts on air, surface water and groundwater quality. In June 2007, we surveyed almond growers to assess their plant nutrition practices, identify opportunities for improvement, and target research and extension needs. The majority of respondents, particularly those with large almond acreages, used fertigation to apply nitrogen; applied nitrogen coincident with periods of maximal plant demand; and collected annual tissue samples for analysis. While the survey results suggested broad compliance with the best-available management practices and are likely to indicate good nutrient-use efficiency, they also suggested that growers are uncertain about current practices to monitor orchard nutrient status and would value additional information to enable greater precision in fertilization rates and timing.
Distinctive symptoms differentiate four common types of berry shrivel disorder in grape
by Mark N. Krasnow, Mark A. Matthews, Rhonda J. Smith, Jason Benz, Ed Weber, Ken A. Shackel
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Sugar accumulation disorder, bunchstem necrosis, dehydration and sunburn can be distinguished by type and location of fruit damage.
Shriveled fruit in vineyards has several origins including sunburn, dehydration, bunchstem necrosis and the recently described sugar accumulation disorder. These disorders are often confused with one another, but they can easily be distinguished by the location or composition of shriveled fruit and the condition of the rachis (the stem structure of a cluster). Sunburn is typically exhibited only on berries that are exposed to direct sunlight, and bunchstem necrosis is typified by necrotic rachis tissue. Berries with sugar accumulation disorder exhibit low sugar concentration, whereas berries with late-season dehydration typically have above-normal sugar concentration. Berries with sugar accumulation disorder and bunchstem necrosis exhibit the sugar content when sugar accumulation ceases or stem necrosis occurs, respectively. In tests, berries with sugar accumulation disorder exhibited lower berry weight, pH and anthocyanins, as well as differences in many nitrogenous compounds compared to normally developing fruit. In one location, sugar accumulation disorder was expressed at the whole-vine level, but none of the commonly known pathogenic organisms were found.

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