Relative grape damaging potential of three species of birds
Not available – first paragraph follows: At least 20 and possibly as many as 40 species of birds damage ripening grapes in California, but the economic importance of individual species has not been clearly defined. Several studies in California vineyards have documented the various types of birds that damage grapes or have estimated the overall damage due to all species. However, estimates of the damage potential of each species should not be based strictly on its relative abundance in vineyards: the different body sizes, feeding habits, and social behaviors of the various species also influence the amount of grapes they damage. A better knowledge of the actual damage capability of individual bird species could help grape growers predict potential damage severity from observed bird numbers, thereby allowing more species-specific and cost-effective bird damage control programs to be implemented.