Population dynamics of deer: Study of deer herd reveals internal parasites and starvation are most important factors contributing to mortality of deer
California Agriculture 10(7):9-14.
Published July 01, 1956
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Natural causes—starvation, accidents, internal parasites, diseases, and predation—accounted for 47% of the losses observed in a population of Columbian black-tailed deer, studied on the Hopland Field Station of the University of California.