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California Agriculture, Vol. 30, No.3

Cover:  Exploration and establishrnent of electric power facilities such as this geothermal well may accelerate soil erosion.
March 1976
Volume 30, Number 3

Research articles

Iron deficiency in California crops
by E.F. Wallihan
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: In connnection with a 1974 survey of 22 western states, we agreed to gather information on the types of crops in California taht are subject to iron deficiency and to estimate the acreage involved. Recognizing that the severity of the problem veries from year to year because of weather conditions, we concluded that the most useful information would be obtained from members of Copperative Extension who have long familiarty with field conditions in the various agricultural sections of the state. therefore, the information summarized below was obtained from Country Farm Advisors throughout California.
Not available – first paragraph follows: In connnection with a 1974 survey of 22 western states, we agreed to gather information on the types of crops in California taht are subject to iron deficiency and to estimate the acreage involved. Recognizing that the severity of the problem veries from year to year because of weather conditions, we concluded that the most useful information would be obtained from members of Copperative Extension who have long familiarty with field conditions in the various agricultural sections of the state. therefore, the information summarized below was obtained from Country Farm Advisors throughout California.
Devrinol and surflan: New selective weed control in young orchards and vineyards
by A.H. Lange, C. Elmore, B. Fischer, H. Kempen, E.E. Stevenson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Annual weed competition in young orchards and vineyards can often reduce first-year growth as much as 50 percent. In fields with extremely heavy weed populations and limited irrigation, trees and vines have been killed by weeds in the first year. Perennial weeds are even more harmful than annual weeds to newly planted trees and vines. Even though a persistent tillage program can give a practical control of perennial grasses, many growers still have serious problems with perennial weeds.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Annual weed competition in young orchards and vineyards can often reduce first-year growth as much as 50 percent. In fields with extremely heavy weed populations and limited irrigation, trees and vines have been killed by weeds in the first year. Perennial weeds are even more harmful than annual weeds to newly planted trees and vines. Even though a persistent tillage program can give a practical control of perennial grasses, many growers still have serious problems with perennial weeds.
Rose powdery mildew control in outdoor roses
by A.O. Paulus, J.A. Nelson, R.G. Maire, O.A. Harvey
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Powdery mildew of rose, caused by the fungus, Sphaerotheca pannosa, results in unsightly leaves and flowers, and may result in reduced growth. Several new fungicides were evaluated for the control of powdery mildew in southern California rose gardens, and are reported here.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Powdery mildew of rose, caused by the fungus, Sphaerotheca pannosa, results in unsightly leaves and flowers, and may result in reduced growth. Several new fungicides were evaluated for the control of powdery mildew in southern California rose gardens, and are reported here.
Liquid protein supplement in dairy cattle rations
by Gale G. Gurtle, D.L. Bath
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Liquid protein supplements (LPS) are available commercially for feeding to dairy and beef cattle. They are easy to handle and mix with other ingredients, but liquid nutrients are usually more expensive than dry nutrients. Ingredients and nutrient content vary among products, but most are combinations of molasses, urea, phosphoric acid, and small amounts of other minerals and vitamins. The liquid protein supplement Pro-Lix also includes fish solubles, fermentation solubles, and brewers yeast. It contains 35 percent crude protein of which 17 percent is derived from nonprotein nitrogen.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Liquid protein supplements (LPS) are available commercially for feeding to dairy and beef cattle. They are easy to handle and mix with other ingredients, but liquid nutrients are usually more expensive than dry nutrients. Ingredients and nutrient content vary among products, but most are combinations of molasses, urea, phosphoric acid, and small amounts of other minerals and vitamins. The liquid protein supplement Pro-Lix also includes fish solubles, fermentation solubles, and brewers yeast. It contains 35 percent crude protein of which 17 percent is derived from nonprotein nitrogen.
Maps of soil erosion potential — an aid in land-use planning in range and wildlands
by Tawna Nicholas, John McColl
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Road building and other types of construction activities on range and wild lands often involve considerable landscape manipulations and may cause serious soil erosion particularly on steep slopes with shallow soil. Some of these effects are noticeable in The Geysers area of northern California where there are about a dozen geothermal power plants in operation. Removal of vegetation and construction of drill pads, steam transmission lines, power plant sites, roads, parking lots, and electrical transmission rights-of-way mar the landscape and accelerate erosion. Furthermore, widespread concern over diminished energy supplies makes additional development of geothermal resources imminent. Therefore, steps should be taken to minimize ere sion by identifying critical areas before site disturbance.
Maps of erosion potential were produced for an area in northern California where exploration of geothermal energy sources is in progress. The maps were derived from existing maps and other data on topography, soils, and vegetation. The simple procedure used to make these maps could easily be adapted to other situations where disturbance of range or forest lands is anticipated. Such maps are therefore effective tools for intelligent land-use planning.
Survival of the sugarbeet cyst nematode in the alimentary canal of cattle
by Demetrios G. Kontaxis, Glen P. Lofgreen, I.J. Thomason, H. E. Mckinney
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: The sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is common in the Imperial Valley. About 50,000 acres of agricultural land have been found to be infested with this pest.
The sugarbeet cyst nematode can survive in the alimentary canal of cattle. Manure from cattle fed on cyst nematode infected plant material disseminates this pest.
Drip irrigation for plants grown in containers
by T. Furuta, R. A. Coleman, T. Mock, A. W. Marsh, R. L. Branson, R. Strohman
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Drip and spray irrigation systems permit precise placement of a measured amount of water to soil. Designed for frequent, slow application of water, these systems make it possible to adjust the volume of water applied to soil in order to replace that which is removed from the soil through evaporation and plant transpiration (evapotranspiration). Use of drip and spray irrigation systems should lead to reduced water runoff from soils and more efficient use of water and nutrients needed for plant growth.
For the most efficient use of drip irrigation for plants grown in containers, attention must be paid to evapotranspiration and distribution of and amount of salinity in the soil.
Occurrence of Spiroplasma citri in periwinkle in California
by A.L. Granett, R.L. Blue, M.K. Harjung, E.C. Calavan, D.J. Gumpf
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Citrus stubborn disease is a serious economic problem in California, in Southwestern United States, and in other arid citrus areas of the world. Knowledge of the disease has rapidly increased since 1969 when a mycoplasma-like organism was found by electron microscopy in thin sections of diseased leaves. In 1970, a mycoplasma, now named Spiroplasma citri, was cultured from diseased citrus tissue. Further research has revealed that two leafhoppers (see California Agriculture, November 1973) can transmit the stubborn disease organism. Cultured spiroplasma have been fed or injected into these insects and they, in turn, have transmitted stubborn to healthy citrus seedlings. More recently (see California Agriculture, February 1975), one of the insects, Scaphytopius nitridus, fed on diseased citrus trees was shown to transmit a severe disease to healthy Vinca rosea L., periwinkle plants, in controlled greenhouse experiments. This information prompted our investigating the possibility of natural spread of stubborn into periwinkle plants.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Citrus stubborn disease is a serious economic problem in California, in Southwestern United States, and in other arid citrus areas of the world. Knowledge of the disease has rapidly increased since 1969 when a mycoplasma-like organism was found by electron microscopy in thin sections of diseased leaves. In 1970, a mycoplasma, now named Spiroplasma citri, was cultured from diseased citrus tissue. Further research has revealed that two leafhoppers (see California Agriculture, November 1973) can transmit the stubborn disease organism. Cultured spiroplasma have been fed or injected into these insects and they, in turn, have transmitted stubborn to healthy citrus seedlings. More recently (see California Agriculture, February 1975), one of the insects, Scaphytopius nitridus, fed on diseased citrus trees was shown to transmit a severe disease to healthy Vinca rosea L., periwinkle plants, in controlled greenhouse experiments. This information prompted our investigating the possibility of natural spread of stubborn into periwinkle plants.
Ocypus olens: A predator of brown garden snail
by T.W. Fisher, Ian Moore, E.F. Legner, R.E. Orth
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: The large black rove-beetle Ocypus olens Msller (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) (fig. 1) is established in some gardens in California. It was first introduced accidentally into California probably about fifty years ago and has since been reported in the counties of Contra Costa, Imperial, Los Angeles, Modoc, Riverside, San Diego, San Francisco and San Mateo. This active predator is now being viewed as a possible biological control agent of Helix aspersa Muller, the brown garden snail (BGS).
Not available – first paragraph follows: The large black rove-beetle Ocypus olens Msller (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) (fig. 1) is established in some gardens in California. It was first introduced accidentally into California probably about fifty years ago and has since been reported in the counties of Contra Costa, Imperial, Los Angeles, Modoc, Riverside, San Diego, San Francisco and San Mateo. This active predator is now being viewed as a possible biological control agent of Helix aspersa Muller, the brown garden snail (BGS).
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California Agriculture, Vol. 30, No.3

Cover:  Exploration and establishrnent of electric power facilities such as this geothermal well may accelerate soil erosion.
March 1976
Volume 30, Number 3

Research articles

Iron deficiency in California crops
by E.F. Wallihan
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: In connnection with a 1974 survey of 22 western states, we agreed to gather information on the types of crops in California taht are subject to iron deficiency and to estimate the acreage involved. Recognizing that the severity of the problem veries from year to year because of weather conditions, we concluded that the most useful information would be obtained from members of Copperative Extension who have long familiarty with field conditions in the various agricultural sections of the state. therefore, the information summarized below was obtained from Country Farm Advisors throughout California.
Not available – first paragraph follows: In connnection with a 1974 survey of 22 western states, we agreed to gather information on the types of crops in California taht are subject to iron deficiency and to estimate the acreage involved. Recognizing that the severity of the problem veries from year to year because of weather conditions, we concluded that the most useful information would be obtained from members of Copperative Extension who have long familiarty with field conditions in the various agricultural sections of the state. therefore, the information summarized below was obtained from Country Farm Advisors throughout California.
Devrinol and surflan: New selective weed control in young orchards and vineyards
by A.H. Lange, C. Elmore, B. Fischer, H. Kempen, E.E. Stevenson
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Annual weed competition in young orchards and vineyards can often reduce first-year growth as much as 50 percent. In fields with extremely heavy weed populations and limited irrigation, trees and vines have been killed by weeds in the first year. Perennial weeds are even more harmful than annual weeds to newly planted trees and vines. Even though a persistent tillage program can give a practical control of perennial grasses, many growers still have serious problems with perennial weeds.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Annual weed competition in young orchards and vineyards can often reduce first-year growth as much as 50 percent. In fields with extremely heavy weed populations and limited irrigation, trees and vines have been killed by weeds in the first year. Perennial weeds are even more harmful than annual weeds to newly planted trees and vines. Even though a persistent tillage program can give a practical control of perennial grasses, many growers still have serious problems with perennial weeds.
Rose powdery mildew control in outdoor roses
by A.O. Paulus, J.A. Nelson, R.G. Maire, O.A. Harvey
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Powdery mildew of rose, caused by the fungus, Sphaerotheca pannosa, results in unsightly leaves and flowers, and may result in reduced growth. Several new fungicides were evaluated for the control of powdery mildew in southern California rose gardens, and are reported here.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Powdery mildew of rose, caused by the fungus, Sphaerotheca pannosa, results in unsightly leaves and flowers, and may result in reduced growth. Several new fungicides were evaluated for the control of powdery mildew in southern California rose gardens, and are reported here.
Liquid protein supplement in dairy cattle rations
by Gale G. Gurtle, D.L. Bath
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Liquid protein supplements (LPS) are available commercially for feeding to dairy and beef cattle. They are easy to handle and mix with other ingredients, but liquid nutrients are usually more expensive than dry nutrients. Ingredients and nutrient content vary among products, but most are combinations of molasses, urea, phosphoric acid, and small amounts of other minerals and vitamins. The liquid protein supplement Pro-Lix also includes fish solubles, fermentation solubles, and brewers yeast. It contains 35 percent crude protein of which 17 percent is derived from nonprotein nitrogen.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Liquid protein supplements (LPS) are available commercially for feeding to dairy and beef cattle. They are easy to handle and mix with other ingredients, but liquid nutrients are usually more expensive than dry nutrients. Ingredients and nutrient content vary among products, but most are combinations of molasses, urea, phosphoric acid, and small amounts of other minerals and vitamins. The liquid protein supplement Pro-Lix also includes fish solubles, fermentation solubles, and brewers yeast. It contains 35 percent crude protein of which 17 percent is derived from nonprotein nitrogen.
Maps of soil erosion potential — an aid in land-use planning in range and wildlands
by Tawna Nicholas, John McColl
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Road building and other types of construction activities on range and wild lands often involve considerable landscape manipulations and may cause serious soil erosion particularly on steep slopes with shallow soil. Some of these effects are noticeable in The Geysers area of northern California where there are about a dozen geothermal power plants in operation. Removal of vegetation and construction of drill pads, steam transmission lines, power plant sites, roads, parking lots, and electrical transmission rights-of-way mar the landscape and accelerate erosion. Furthermore, widespread concern over diminished energy supplies makes additional development of geothermal resources imminent. Therefore, steps should be taken to minimize ere sion by identifying critical areas before site disturbance.
Maps of erosion potential were produced for an area in northern California where exploration of geothermal energy sources is in progress. The maps were derived from existing maps and other data on topography, soils, and vegetation. The simple procedure used to make these maps could easily be adapted to other situations where disturbance of range or forest lands is anticipated. Such maps are therefore effective tools for intelligent land-use planning.
Survival of the sugarbeet cyst nematode in the alimentary canal of cattle
by Demetrios G. Kontaxis, Glen P. Lofgreen, I.J. Thomason, H. E. Mckinney
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: The sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is common in the Imperial Valley. About 50,000 acres of agricultural land have been found to be infested with this pest.
The sugarbeet cyst nematode can survive in the alimentary canal of cattle. Manure from cattle fed on cyst nematode infected plant material disseminates this pest.
Drip irrigation for plants grown in containers
by T. Furuta, R. A. Coleman, T. Mock, A. W. Marsh, R. L. Branson, R. Strohman
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Drip and spray irrigation systems permit precise placement of a measured amount of water to soil. Designed for frequent, slow application of water, these systems make it possible to adjust the volume of water applied to soil in order to replace that which is removed from the soil through evaporation and plant transpiration (evapotranspiration). Use of drip and spray irrigation systems should lead to reduced water runoff from soils and more efficient use of water and nutrients needed for plant growth.
For the most efficient use of drip irrigation for plants grown in containers, attention must be paid to evapotranspiration and distribution of and amount of salinity in the soil.
Occurrence of Spiroplasma citri in periwinkle in California
by A.L. Granett, R.L. Blue, M.K. Harjung, E.C. Calavan, D.J. Gumpf
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: Citrus stubborn disease is a serious economic problem in California, in Southwestern United States, and in other arid citrus areas of the world. Knowledge of the disease has rapidly increased since 1969 when a mycoplasma-like organism was found by electron microscopy in thin sections of diseased leaves. In 1970, a mycoplasma, now named Spiroplasma citri, was cultured from diseased citrus tissue. Further research has revealed that two leafhoppers (see California Agriculture, November 1973) can transmit the stubborn disease organism. Cultured spiroplasma have been fed or injected into these insects and they, in turn, have transmitted stubborn to healthy citrus seedlings. More recently (see California Agriculture, February 1975), one of the insects, Scaphytopius nitridus, fed on diseased citrus trees was shown to transmit a severe disease to healthy Vinca rosea L., periwinkle plants, in controlled greenhouse experiments. This information prompted our investigating the possibility of natural spread of stubborn into periwinkle plants.
Not available – first paragraph follows: Citrus stubborn disease is a serious economic problem in California, in Southwestern United States, and in other arid citrus areas of the world. Knowledge of the disease has rapidly increased since 1969 when a mycoplasma-like organism was found by electron microscopy in thin sections of diseased leaves. In 1970, a mycoplasma, now named Spiroplasma citri, was cultured from diseased citrus tissue. Further research has revealed that two leafhoppers (see California Agriculture, November 1973) can transmit the stubborn disease organism. Cultured spiroplasma have been fed or injected into these insects and they, in turn, have transmitted stubborn to healthy citrus seedlings. More recently (see California Agriculture, February 1975), one of the insects, Scaphytopius nitridus, fed on diseased citrus trees was shown to transmit a severe disease to healthy Vinca rosea L., periwinkle plants, in controlled greenhouse experiments. This information prompted our investigating the possibility of natural spread of stubborn into periwinkle plants.
Ocypus olens: A predator of brown garden snail
by T.W. Fisher, Ian Moore, E.F. Legner, R.E. Orth
| Full text HTML  | PDF  
Not available – first paragraph follows: The large black rove-beetle Ocypus olens Msller (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) (fig. 1) is established in some gardens in California. It was first introduced accidentally into California probably about fifty years ago and has since been reported in the counties of Contra Costa, Imperial, Los Angeles, Modoc, Riverside, San Diego, San Francisco and San Mateo. This active predator is now being viewed as a possible biological control agent of Helix aspersa Muller, the brown garden snail (BGS).
Not available – first paragraph follows: The large black rove-beetle Ocypus olens Msller (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) (fig. 1) is established in some gardens in California. It was first introduced accidentally into California probably about fifty years ago and has since been reported in the counties of Contra Costa, Imperial, Los Angeles, Modoc, Riverside, San Diego, San Francisco and San Mateo. This active predator is now being viewed as a possible biological control agent of Helix aspersa Muller, the brown garden snail (BGS).

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