A newly imported California red scale parasite from Saudi Arabia
In general, species of Aphytis are the most effective of California red scale parasites. Species of Comperiella, Prospaltella, Physcus, Aspidiotiphagus and Habrolepis are usually less effective but may act in a complementary manner. Several species of Aphytis are recorded to be partially to completely effective in biological control of the California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), in various citrus producing countries. Aphytis melinus DeBach, originally from India and Pakistan, is now established in California, Argentina, Australia, Greece, Israel, Cyprus, South Africa, and elsewhere. Aphytis lingnanensis Compere, originally from southeast China, is now in California, Mexico, Texas, and elsewhere. Aphytis coheni Debach is important in Israel; A. chrysomphali (Mercet) has been of some consequence in California, Australia, Greece, Israel, and elsewhere; and A. africanus Quedneau is considered important in South Africa.