Parasites for control of grape leaf folder
There is now ample evidence that integrated control has been proven a better approach than total reliance on pesticides, for solving a wide variety of pest problems. Integrated control emphasizes the fullest possible use of existing mortality and suppressive factors in the environment. It is not dependent upon any specific control procedure but rather coordinates, within the agricultural environment, the appropriate management techniques with natural regulating and limiting elements. Successful programs developed in many other parts of the world include integrated control for pests of citrus in Israel, for deciduous fruit pests in Central Europe and Nova Scotia, and for cotton pests in Peru. Other integrated control projects are now being developed for olives in Greece, for maize in parts of Latin America, for rice in India and Japan, and for cotton in Colombia. Crop protection specialists all over the world are moving rapidly toward the integrated control approach in efforts to help solve the critical food problems facing the world today. This issue of California Agriculture includes progress reports on several phases of the University of California Integrated Control Program for Grapes.—Ray F. Smith, Chairman, Department of Entomology and Parasitology, University of California, Berkeley. The grape leaf folder, Desmia funeralis Hubner, is apparently an introduced pest without effective natural enemies in California. However, some 14 species of parasites and predators were found to attack the grape leaf folder in the eastern United States. Three of the most promising species have now been released in California vineyards for biological control of this pest. One of these, Macrocentrus, is shown on the cover. Photo above is of the parasitic wasp, Apanteles, depositing eggs in larvae of the grape leaf folder.