California Agriculture
California Agriculture
California Agriculture
University of California
California Agriculture

Lorrene Ritchie

Photo of Lorrene Ritchie
Director and Cooperative Extension Specialist
University of California - ANR
1111 Franklin St., 10th Floor
10123
Oakland, CA 94607-5200
510-987-0523
lritchie@ucanr.edu Create VCard

Biography

Lorrene Ritchie, PhD, RD, is the inaugural Director of the Nutrition Policy Institute (NPI) and Cooperative Extension Specialist in the University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. The mission of NPI is to improve nutrition and reduce obesity, hunger and chronic disease risk in children and their families in diverse settings. NPI provides nutrition policy leadership built from ANR's numerous research, and education activities, and works in synergy with research and outreach efforts being conducted throughout the UC system.

Dr. Ritchie has devoted her career to the development of interdisciplinary, science-based and culturally relevant solutions to child obesity and has conducted studies in numerous settings on the impact of nutrition policies and programs. Current research interests include evaluation of the relationship of school-level programs and policies on student dietary intakes, the impact of policy on nutrition practices in child care settings, the relationship of federal, state and community-level programs and policies with child nutrition and weight status, and the impact of WIC nutrition education on child feeding practices.

Education

Ph.D. Nutritional Sciences, UC Berkeley. 1995
M.S. Nutrtional Sciences, UC Berkeley. 1990
B.S. Chemistry, San Jose State University. 1985

Areas of Expertise (click to see all ANR academics with this expertise)

Bibliography

Peer Reviewed

  • Nazmi A, Martinez S (2018). A systematic review of food insecurity among U.S. students in higher education. Hunger Env Nutr. June 22. https://doi.org/10.1080/19320248.2018.1484316
  • Ritchie LD, Woodward-Lopez G (2018). Associations of community programs and policies with children's dietary intakes: the Healthy Communities Study. Pediatr Obes. 13:Suppl 1, 14-26.
  • Tan ML, Laraia B (2018). Child food insecurity is associated with energy intake among fourth and fifth grade girls. J Acad Nutr Diet. Oct 11.
  • Woodward-Lopez G, Gosliner W (2018). Community characteristics modify the relationship between obesity prevention efforts and dietary outcomes in children in the Healthy Communities Study. Pediatr Obes. 13:Suppl 1, 46-55.
  • Au LE, Gurzo K (2018). Diet quality of U.S. infants 7-24 months old in the WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2. J Nutr. 148, 1786-93.
  • Au LE, Gurzo K (2018). Eating school meals daily is associated with healthier dietary intakes. J Acad Nutr Diet. 118, 1474-1481.
  • Webb KL, Hewawitharana SC (2018). Features of nutrition-related community policies and programs associated with more healthful dietary intakes among children; findings from the Healthy Communities Study. Pediatr Obes. 13:Suppl 1, 103-112.
  • Altman EA, Ritchie LD (2018). Food insecurity is associated with body dissatisfaction among children in California. J Acad Nutr Diet. Aug 31.
  • Martinez SM, Frongillo EA (2018). No food for thought: Food insecurity is related to poor mental health and lower academic performance among students in California's public university system. J Health Psychol. June 1. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105318783028
  • Lee DL, Gúrzo K (2018). Policy and Practice in ECE: Compliance with the new 2017 Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) meal patterns prior to implementation. Child Obes. 14, 393-402.
  • Au LE, Crawford PB (2018). School wellness committees and policy implementation are associated with lower body mass index z-scores and improved dietary intakes in U.S. schoolchildren: The Healthy Communities Study. J School Health. 88, 627-635.
  • Leung CW, DiMatteo SG (2018). Sugar-sweetened beverage and water intake in relation to diet quality in U.S. children. Am J Prev Med. 54, 394-402.
  • Strauss WJ, Nagaraja J (2018). The longitudinal relationship between community programs and policies to prevent childhood obesity and BMI in children: The Healthy Communities Study Team. Pediatr Obes. 13:Suppl 1, 82-92.
  • Cates S, Blitstein J (2018). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Policy Support. WIC Nutrition Education Study: Phase II Final Report.
  • Cates S, Blitstein J (2018). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Policy Support. WIC Nutrition Education Study: Phase II Final Report. September. https://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/special-supplemental-nutrition-program-women-infants-and-children-wic-nutrition-education-study
  • Borger C, Weinfield N (2018). WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study – 2: Second Year Report. Prepared by Westat under Contract No. AG-3198-K-11-0073. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Project Officer: Courtney Paolicelli. April. https://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/wic-infant-and-toddler-feeding-practices-study-2-second-year-report
  • Whaley SE, Whaley M (2017). Breastfeeding is associated with higher retention on WIC after age 1. J Nutr Ed Behav. 49, 810-16.
  • Frongillo EA, Fawcett SB (2017). Community policies and programs to prevent obesity and child adiposity. Am J Prev Med. 53, 576-83.
  • Martinez SM, Webb K (2017). Food insecurity in California’s public university system: What are the risk factors? J Hunger Env Nutr. Nov 21.
  • Keihner A, Rosen N (2017). Impact of California Children’s Power Play! Campaign on fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity among fourth- and fifth-grade students. Am J Health Promot. 31, 189-91.
  • Strochlic R, Au LE (2017). Is urban–rural location associated with weight status in school children? An examination of 42 small and rural Californian counties. Rural Remote Health. 17, 3966.
  • Leonard SA, Petito LC (2017). Maternal history of child abuse and obesity risk in offspring: Mediation by weight in pregnancy. Child Obes. 13, 259-66.
  • Au LE, Whaley S (2017). Online and in-person group nutrition education reduces sodium intake: A randomized trial to assess knowledge, self-efficacy and behaviors in WIC participants. J Am Acad Nutr. 117, 1384-95.
  • Abrams B, Coyle J (2017). Preventing excessive gestational weight gain could reduce maternal obesity at age 40: An analysis of a nationally representative sample. Am J Public Health. 107, 1463-14.
  • Au LE, Rosen NJ (2017). Salad bar characteristics in relation to diet quality of school children. Health Behav Policy Rev. 4, 3-12.
  • Madsen KA, Linchey J (2017). The Fit Study: Design and rationale for a cluster randomized trial of school-based BMI screening and reporting. Contemp Clin Trials. 58, 40-6.
  • Leonard SA, Petito LC (2017). Weight gain in pregnancy and child weight status from birth to adulthood in the United States. Pediatr Obes. 12 Suppl 1, 18-25.
  • May L, Borger C (2017). WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study – 2: Infant Year Report. Prepared by Westat under Contract No. AG-3198-K-11-0073. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Project Officer: Allison Magness. January. https://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/wic-infant-and-toddler-feeding-practices-study-2-infant-year-report
  • Rehkopf DH, Headen I (2016). Adverse childhood experiences and later life adult obesity and smoking in the United States. Ann Epidemiol. 26, 488-492.
  • Au LE, Rosen NJ (2016). Eating school lunch is associated with higher diet quality among elementary school students. J Acad Nutr Diet. 116, 1817-24.
  • Au LE, Whaley S (2016). If you build it they will come: Satisfaction and utilization of WIC participants with online and traditional in-person nutrition education. J Nutr Ed Behav. 48, 336-42.
  • Au LE, Whaley S (2016). Online and in-person nutrition education improves breakfast knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of WIC participants. J Acad Nutr Diet. 116, 490-500.
  • Ritchie L, Rosen NJ (2016). School breakfast policy is associated with dietary intake of fourth and fifth grade students. J Acad Nutr Diet. 116, 449-57.
  • Prather AA, Leung C (2016). Short and sweet: Associations between self-reported sleep duration and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adults in the United States. Sleep Health. 2, 272-6.
  • Fram MS, Ritchie LD (2015). Child experience of food insecurity is associated with child diet and physical activity. J Nutr. 145, 499-504.
  • Ritchie LD, Yoshida S (2015). Drinking water in California child care site before and after 2011-2012 beverage policy. Prev Chron Dis. 12, E89.
  • Fenton K, Rosen NJ (2015). Eat lunch first or play first? Inconsistent associations with fruit and vegetable consumption in elementary school. J Acad Nutr Diet. 115, 585-92.
  • Olsho LEW, Klerman JA (2015). Increasing child fruit and vegetable intake: Findings from the US Department of Agriculture Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program. J Acad Nutr Diet. 115, 1283-90.
  • John LV, Gregoriou M (2015). Operational Implementation of the Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health. Am J Prev Med. 49, 631-5.
  • Madsen KA, Cotterman C (2015). Passive commuting is associated with increased dietary intake in 4th and 5thgrade students. Am J Prev Med. 48, 292-9.
  • Ritchie LD, Sharma S (2015). Policy improves what beverages are served to young children in childcare. J Acad Nutr Diet. 115, 724-30.
  • Ritchie LD, Wakimoto P (2015). The Healthy Communities Study nutrition assessments: Child diet and the school nutrition environment. Am J Prev Med. 49, 647-52.
  • Arteaga SS, Loria CM (2015). The Healthy Communities Study: Its rationale, aims and approach. Am J Prev Med. 49, 615-23.
  • Leung CW, Epel ES (2014). Food insecurity is inversely associated with diet quality of lower-income adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. 114, 1943-1953.
  • Robinson CA, Cohen AK (2014). Pregnancy and post-delivery maternal weight changes and overweight in preschool children. Prev Med. 60, 77-82.
  • Ritchie LD, Whaley SE (2014). Satisfaction of California WIC participants with food package changes. J Nutr Ed Behav. 46, S71-S78.
  • Bartlett S, Olsho L (2013). Evaluation of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP): Executive Summary. Prepared by Abt Associates under Contract No. AG-3198-D-09-0053. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Project Officers: Karen Castellanos-Brown and Allison Magness.
  • Bartlett S, Olsho L (2013). Evaluation of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP): Final Evaluation Report. Prepared by Abt Associates under Contract No. AG-3198-D-09-0053. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Project Officers: Karen Castellanos-Brown and Allison Magness.
  • Kim LP, Whaley SE (2013). Mothers prefer fresh fruits and vegetables over jarred baby fruits and vegetables in the New Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Food Package. J Nutr Ed Behav. 45, 732-7.
  • Hoelscher D, Kirk S (2013). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Interventions for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. J Acad Nutr Diet. 113, 1375-94.
  • LD, Ritchie (2012). Less frequent eating predicts greater BMI and waist circumference in female adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 95, 290-6.
  • Soldavini J, Crawford P (2012). Nutrition claims impact children’s health perceptions and taste preferences. J Nutr Ed Behav. 44, 624-27.
  • Ritchie LD, Boyle M (2012). Participation in the Child and Adult Care Food Program is associated with more nutritious foods and beverages in child care. Child Obes. 8, 236-41.
  • Whaley SE, Ritchie LD (2012). Revised WIC food package improves diets of WIC families. J Nutr Ed Behav. 44, 204-9.
  • O'Brien KO, Donangelo CM (2012). Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium intake impact rates of bone calcium deposition during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Am J Clin Nutr. 96, 64-72.
  • Ritchie LD, Raman A (2011). Dietary intakes of urban African American children: Both family and child dietary attributes predict child intakes. J Nutr Ed Behav. 43, 236-43.
  • Danaher C, Fredericks D (2011). Early childhood feeding practices improved after short-term intervention with pediatricians and parents. Child Obes. 7, 480-7.
  • Ritchie LD, Whaley SE (2010). Favorable impact of nutrition education on WIC families. J Nutr Ed Behav. 42, S2-S10.
  • Gosliner WA, James P (2010). Impact of a worksite wellness program on the nutrition and physical activity environment of child care centers. Am J Health Prom. 24, 186-9.
  • Raman A, Ritchie LD (2010). Insulin resistance is improved in overweight African American boys but not in girls following a one-year multidisciplinary community intervention program. J Pediatr Endocrin Metab. 23, 109-20.
  • Fung EB, Ritchie LD (2010). Randomized controlled trial to examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in WIC. J Nutr Ed Behav. 42, S22-S29.
  • Ritchie LD, Sharma S (2010). Taking Action Together: A YMCA-based protocol to prevent Type-2 Diabetes in high-BMI inner-city African American children. Trials. 11, 60-73.
  • Woodward-Lopez G, Kao J (2010). To what extent have sweetened beverages contributed to the obesity epidemic? Public Health Nutr.
  • Ontai L, Ritchie L (2009). Guiding family-based obesity prevention efforts in children, Part 1: What determinants do we target? Int J Child Adolesc Health. 2, 19-30.
  • Townsend MS, Young T (2009). Guiding family-based obesity prevention efforts in children, Part 2: What behaviors do we measure? Int J Child Adolesc Health. 2, 31-48.
  • Ritchie LD, Martin AC (2009). Teaching kids what to eat where they eat: developing and pilot testing the Nutrition Education in Foodservice Toolkit. J Ext. 47, 7RIB4.
  • Crawford P, Woodward-Lopez G (2008). How discretionary can we be with sweetened beverages for children? J Am Diet Assoc. 108, 1440-4.
  • Ritchie LD, Spector P (2007). Dietary patterns in adolescence are related to adiposity in young adulthood in Black and White females. J Nutr. 137, 399-406.
  • Ritchie LD, Woodward-Lopez G (2007). Preventing obesity: What should we eat? Cal Ag. 61, 112-8.
  • Crawford PB, Wang M (2006). Disparities in obesity: prevalence, causes, and solutions. J Hunger Env Nutr. 1, 27-48.
  • Ritchie LD, Hoelscher M (2006). Position of the American Dietetic Association: Individual-, family-, school-, and community-based interventions for pediatric overweight. J Am Diet Assoc. 106, 925-45.
  • Wang MC, Gonzalez AA (2006). The neighborhood food environment: Sources of historical data on retail food stores. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 3, 15-19.
  • Ritchie LD, Welk G (2005). Family environment and pediatric overweight: What is a parent to do? J Am Diet Assoc. 105, S70-S79.
  • Crawford PB, Gosliner W (2004). Counseling Latina mothers of preschool children about weight issues: suggestions for a new framework. J Am Diet Assoc. 104, 387-394.
  • Ritchie LD, Ivey SL (2003). Alarming trends in pediatric overweight in the United States. Social Prev Med. 48, 168-77.
  • Ritchie L, Ganapathy S (2003). Prevention of type 2 diabetes in youth: etiology, promising interventions and recommendations. Pediatr Diabetes. 4, 174-209.
  • Crawford PB, Story M (2001). Ethnic issues in the epidemiology of childhood obesity. Pediatr Clin N Am. 48, 855-78.
  • Ritchie LD, King JC (2000). Dietary calcium and pregnancy-induced hypertension: is there a relation? Am J Clin Nutr. 71, 1371S-4S.
  • Ritchie LD, Fung EB (1998). A longitunidal study of calcium homeostasis during human pregnancy and lactation and after resumption of menses. Am J Clin Nutr. 67, 693-701.
  • Fung EB, Ritchie LD (1998). Zinc absorption during pregnancy and lactation. Infant Nutr Dig. 3, 14-15.
  • Fung EB, Ritchie LD (1997). Zinc absorption in women during pregnancy and lactation: a longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr. 66, 80-88.
  • Yoon JS, Fung EB (1996). Urinary lactose is not an index of lactation performance. J Am Diet Assoc. 96, 1179-81.
  • King JC, Kopp LE (1995). Nutrient recommendations for pregnant and lactating women and older individuals. Korean J Nutr. 28, 217-28.
  • Ritchie LD, Calloway DH (1995). Poor diet reflected in height, weight of low-income Hispanics. Calif Ag. 49, 33-5.
  • Receveur O, Ritchie L (1992). Growth of children and socioeconomic status of Mexican-American farmworker families in Tulare County, California: 1969 vs. 1989. Ecol Food Nutr. 28, 65-74.

Non-Peer Reviewed

  • Gupta C, Bianchi M (2018). Documenting and Supporting Policy Efforts and Impacts: Enhancing Use of the Performance Review Process in UC ANR. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California. February.
  • Nutrition Policy Institute, PHFE-WIC (2018). Policy Brief: Both Online and In-Person Nutrition Education can Improve Health Outcomes for WIC Participants. August. http://npi.ucanr.edu/files/289743.pdf
  • California Food Policy Advocates, UC Agriculture and Natural Resources Nutrition Policy Institute (2018). Policy Brief: Is California Ready for the New Child and Adult Care Food Program Meal Pattern? January. https://cfpa.net/ChildNutrition/ChildCare/CFPAPublications/CFPA-IsCAReadyfortheNewCACFPMealPattern-FINAL-2018.pdf
  • Contributors: UCOP Institutional Research and Academic Planning (Pamela Brown, Tongshan Chang (2017). Global Food Initiative: Food and Housing Security at the University of California. December. http://npi.ucanr.edu/files/277589.pdf
  • Pérez-Escamilla R, Segura-Pérez S (2017). On behalf of the Best Practices for Promoting Healthy Nutrition, Feeding Patterns and Weight Status for Infants and Toddlers from Birth to 24 months Expert Panel. Feeding Guidelines for Infants and Young Toddlers: A Responsive Parenting Approach. Full report: bit.ly/HERfeeding Executive summary: bit.ly/HERfeedingbrief (Ritchie L an expert panel that helped to draft the guidelines). February.
  • UC Agriculture and Natural Resources Nutrition Policy Institute, California Food Policy Advocates (2017). Policy Brief: California Child Care Nutrition and Compliance with 2017 CACFP Standards: Results from a 2016 Statewide Survey of Licensed California Child Care Sites. December. http://npi.ucanr.edu/files/277521.pdf
  • UC Agriculture, Natural Resources Nutrition Policy Institute (2017). Policy Brief: Nutrition Standards for Family Child Care Homes: Evaluation Results from a 2017 Pilot Study of Nutrition Standards Training of 30 Family Child Care Home Providers in Three California Counties. December. http://npi.ucanr.edu/files/27744
  • UC Agriculture and Natural Resources Nutrition Policy Institute, California Food Policy Advocates (2017). Policy Brief: Nutrition Standards for Family Child Care Homes: Evaluation Results from a 2017 Pilot Study of Nutrition Standards Training of 30 Family Child Care Home Providers in Three California Counties. December. http://npi.ucanr.edu/files/277443.pdf
  • L, Ritchie (2017). Research to Action (NPI news brief): Protect WIC from Budget Cuts and Block Granting. June.
  • L, Ritchie (2017). Research to Action (NPI news brief): Importance of safe and accessible drinking water in schools. April.
  • Ritchie, L (2017). Research to Action (NPI news brief): Medical and dental providers join forces to limit children’s consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. September.
  • Ritchie, L (2017). Research to Action (NPI news brief): Support rural food banks. December.
  • Au LE, Hecht K (2016). Developing ideal yet actionable family child care nutrition standards. April. http://www.npi.ucanr.edu
  • Au LE, Hecht K (2016). Developing ideal yet actionable family child care nutrition standards. April. http://www.npi.ucanr.edu
  • California Food Policy Advocates, Nutrition Policy Institute (2016). Family Child Care Nutrition Standards Project: Phase I Development Phase. Discussion paper. August. http://cfpa.net/ChildNutrition/ChildCare/CFPAPublications/CFPA-FCCNutritionStandards-DiscussionPaper-2016-FINAL.pdf
  • California Food Policy Advocates, Nutrition Policy Institute (2016). High Impact Nutrition Standards Feasible for Use in Family Child Care. Policy Brief. August. http://cfpa.net/ChildNutrition/ChildCare/CFPAPublications/CFPA-FCCNutritionStandards-PolicyBrief-2016-FINAL.pdf
  • Ritchie L, Martinez S (2016). Student Food Insecurity – A 2015 Study from the University of California. Policy Brief. July. http://npi.ucanr.edu/files/248812.pdf
  • Martinez SM, Maynard K (2016). University of California Global Food Initiative: Student Food Insecurity Study. July. http://www.ucop.edu/global-food-initiative/best-practices/food-access-security/student-food-access-and-security-study.pdf
  • al, Liebman et (2015). (letter to the editor signed by 172 signatories calling for retraction of BMJ article). Re: The scientific report guiding the US dietary guidelines: is it scientific? BMJ. 351, h4962. http://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h4962/rr-44
  • Crawford P, Eschaveste M (2015). Can SNAP do more to support healthy eating? A real-world test is needed. Nutrition Policy Institute Health Policy Brief. May.
  • Ritchie LD, Rosen NJ (2014). Breakfast in the Classroom Improves Dietary Intake of Students. Policy Brief. September 2014.
  • Ritchie L, Strochlic R (2014). CA4Health Evaluation Report: Community Transformation Grant Initiative in 12 Small and Rural Counties in California. December.
  • Ritchie LD, Rosen NJ (2014). School Breakfast Policy: Is Breakfast in the Classroom Associated with Dietary Intake of Students? A report for Share Our Strength. September.
  • Ritchie LD, Crawford P (2013). Children’s Power Play! Campaign Impact Evaluation. A report for the California Department of Public Health. May.
  • IOM, (Institute of Medicine) (2013). Evaluating Obesity Prevention Efforts: A Plan for Measuring Progress. The National Academies Press.
  • Ritchie L, Sharma S (2013). Evaluating the Impact of New Beverage Nutrition Standards in Licensed Childcare in California. RWJF Research & Publications. March 1. http://www.rwjf.org/en/research-publications/find-rwjf-research/2013/03/evaluating-the-impact-of-new-beverage-nutrition-standards-in-lic.html
  • Ritchie L, Sharma S (2013). Implications of California’s Healthy Beverages in Child Care Law. Policy Brief. March.
  • Patel AI, Ritchie L (2013). Striving for meaningful policies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake among young children. Commentary in Pediatrics. Aug 5.
  • Ritchie, L (2012). IOM (Institute of Medicine). Research Methods to Assess Dietary Intake and Program Participation in Child Day Care: Application to the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Workshop Summary. Barriers and Facilitators to Providing Meals and Snacks that align with the Current Dietary Guidance). The National Academies Press; Chapter 3.
  • Ontai L, Ritchie L (2011). Guiding family-based obesity prevention efforts in low-income children in the United States: Part 1− What determinants do we target? Book Chapter. [Based in earlier published paper.] In: Child and Adolescent Health Yearbook 2009. Editor Joav Merrick. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Chapter 3, 25-40.
  • Townsend MS, Young T (2011). Guiding family-based obesity prevention efforts in low-income children in the United States: Part 2 −What behaviors do we measure? Book Chapter. [Based in earlier published paper.] In: Child and Adolescent Health Yearbook 2009. Editor Joav Merrick. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Chapter 4, 41-60.
  • Ritchie, L (2010). IOM (Institute of Medicine). Planning a WIC Research Agenda: Workshop Summary. The National Academies Press. Chapter 7: Nutrition Education in WIC.
  • Ritchie LD, King JC (2008). Nutrient Recommendations and Dietary Guidelines for Pregnant Women (Chapter 1). In Handbook of Nutrition and Pregnancy, CJ Lammi-Keefe, SC Couch, and E Philipson, eds. Humana Press, Inc.
  • Crawford PB, Woodward-Lopez G (2008). The role of public policy in addressing the pediatric obesity epidemic. In Handbook of Child and Adolescent Obesity. Jelalian E and Steele RG, eds. Springer Publishing Co. 371-386.
  • Woodward-Lopez G, Gerstein D (2006). Carbohydrates and Obesity. In Functional Foods Carbohydrates.e. C Biliaderas and M Izydorczyk. CRC Press.
  • Woodward-Lopez G, Ritchie LD (2006). Obesity: Dietary and Developmental Influences. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
  • Fung EB, Ritchie LD (1997). Zinc metabolism in insulin dependent diabetic women. Ninth International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals. NRC Press. 107-9.
  • Fung E, Woodhouse L (1993). Zinc absorption during pregnancy and lactation: a longitudinal study. In Trace Elements in Man and Animals, 8th ed. M Anke, D Meissner, CF Mills, eds. 406-407.

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