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California milestones

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Authors

Rachel A. Surls, UCCE
Marissa Palin Stein, UC ANR

Publication Information

California Agriculture 68(1):8-15. https://doi.org/10.3733/ca.v068n01p8a

Published online January 01, 2014

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1862

President Lincoln signs Morrill Act, authorizing development of agricultural “land-grant” colleges in each state

1868

University of California founded to teach “agriculture, mining and the mechanical arts”

1887

Hatch Act establishes federal funding for agricultural research in state land-grant colleges

1912

UC agricultural clubs formed in Ferndale and Fortuna; these early clubs evolved into today's 4-H program

1913

Andrew Hansen Christiansen named California's first Extension farm advisor, placed in Humboldt County

1914

Congress passes the Smith-Lever Act, making federal funds available for extension work

1915

UC Agricultural Extension Service (later renamed “Cooperative Extension”) appoints farm advisors in Glenn, Solano, Stanislaus and Placer counties

1917

Emergency war appropriations provide growth for UC Agricultural Extension as “food for victory” becomes national priority

1918

First UC Extension specialist, a poultryman, hired with goal to double egg production from 80 eggs per hen per year average

1919

B.H. Crocheron recruited to direct state's Agricultural Extension Service, which he does for next 35 years

1920

Crocheron establishes week-long traveling conferences where caravans of farm advisors and Farm Bureau representatives travel for hundreds of miles viewing selected farms.

Farm Bureau centers established in more than 500 rural communities

1921

Volunteer leader concept implemented for high school boys' and girls' agricultural clubs organized by farm advisors, forming the basic structure and philosophy for today's 4-H Youth Development Program

1922

Growers begin acquiring tractors; UC Extension holds one-week schools in 12 counties teaching growers how to adjust and repair their new machinery

1923

Extension completes first decade with 40 farm advisors, 33 assistant farm advisors and 21 home demonstration agents in county offices

1924

Extension workers help bring an outbreak of foot and mouth disease under control

1925

Hilgardia, a monographic series of agricultural science, begins

1926

First Agricultural Extension circulars published

1927

Extension academics begin specializing in poultry, dairy, citrus, walnuts, agricultural engineering, etc.

1928

“4-H” appears for the first time in California reports on youth work

1929

Extension provides emergency assistance when St. Francis Dam break inundates portions of Ventura and Los Angeles counties

Extension Director Crocheron embarks on fact-finding tour in Asia to investigate potential markets for California specialty crops; his outlook is not optimistic

1930

Focus turns to practical application of science to agriculture, with progress on soil fertility and new dusts and sprays to control crop diseases

1932

“Cal-Approved” seed program begins to ensure quality seed for standard and improved varieties

1934

Extension tapped to help federal government implement and administer Agricultural Adjustment Administration programs to help growers stabilize their incomes

Severe drought hits California: 18 California counties declared emergency areas eligible for federal funds; farm advisors serve as government agents in purchasing livestock in the hardest-hit areas

1935

With encouragement from a UC Extension forestry specialist, 2,000 miles of windbreak planted to effectively protect Southern California citrus districts

1936

Congress approves Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act to conserve soil and prevent erosion; Extension agents given responsibility of carrying out organizing work

1937

George B. Alcorn joins Extension as agricultural economist; he will become third director of California Agricultural Extension Service in 1956

1938

Federal-state agreements establish pilot land-use planning program in U.S. counties; UC Extension monitors programs in Riverside, Kern, Sonoma and Yuba counties

1940

Farm advisors and home demonstration agents lead wartime committees, conduct war bond campaigns and organize state militia that recruits more than 23,000 volunteers

1941

Victory gardens and rural fire protection become important Extension topics

1942

In response to Pearl Harbor, Extension agents organize Emergency Farm Fire Protection Project, forming more than 2,000 volunteer fire companies in 42 counties to thwart possible incendiary attacks

Director Crocheron organizes California Minute Men rural militia; 20,000 men sign up through county Extension offices to serve on reserve duty

1943

Extension asked to administer Emergency Farm Labor Project to assure adequate supply of workers for wartime agricultural production

1945

In response to newly formed Forest Service grazing restrictions, Extension advisors help ranchers determine most efficient locations and methods to feed cattle

1946

Sixty new Extension appointments made

California Agriculture journal begins publishing

1947

Seventy-eight new Extension agents hired

1948

Extension Director Crocheron dies suddenly, ending an era; acting director Chester Rubel writes “… a deep understanding of rural problems, a genius for organization, and a devotion to agriculture and to rural people … made [Crocheron] an outstanding leader…. The foundations which he laid are sound and enduring … His work will go on.”

1950

Extension reorganizes to better cope with scientific and technical advances and with California's rapidly increasing population; home demonstration agents become home advisors; county director positions created to coordinate local farm and home advisor programs

New specialist positions added in range management, ornamental horticulture, subtropical horticulture, plant pathology, vegetable crops, deciduous fruits and nuts, agricultural engineering, marketing, extension education, 4-H, home economics, youth counseling, apiculture, biometrics, climatology, crops processing, forest products, nematology, parasitology, enology, pesticide safety, consumer marketing, wildlife management, public affairs, radio-TV, dairy products and soil and water salinity

1953

Extension researchers study air pollution damage to various crops in Los Angeles Basin and San Francisco Bay Area

1954

UC Extension specialists coordinate with USDA to develop new shade structures for livestock in hot weather

1955

Extension staff totals 549, more than double 1940's Extension workers

1956

UC Davis scientists and Extension farm advisors develop tomato varieties around state, identifying three new hybrids with superior yields

1957

Extension farm advisors work on improving irrigation efficiency by applying water based on specific soils and crop needs

1958

UC Extension entomologists release guidelines for growers on minimizing effects of pesticides on bees

1959

Extension agricultural economists study challenges and opportunities in California's rural-urban transition

1960

Extension efforts on advancing production agriculture improve farm productivity and mechanization

Home economics program reorganized as Family and Consumer Sciences

4-H programs developed in urban, low-income areas

1961

UC's pioneering biocontrol efforts well under way; scientists release imported parasitic wasps to combat specific citrus pests

1962

Experiment Station researchers and specialists study how to protect state's redwood trees from soil compaction and other damage from recreation, logging and development

1963

Farm advisors work with rice growers in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, San Joaquin, Sacramento, Sutter, Yolo and Yuba counties on fertilizer efficiency

1964

50th anniversary of Smith-Lever Act; UC Extension has 532 farm and home advisors and specialists in 50 subject areas

1965

Extension irrigation specialist and Sacramento County farm advisor encourage nurseries to use plastic tubes with electric timer to irrigate containers, rather than overhead sprinklers

1966

Extension entomologists and Fresno County farm advisors study impact of insecticides on beneficial insects in cotton fields, part of UC's work on pest control methods that utilize beneficial insects, mites and spiders

1967

Extension farm advisors work with UCD's Department of Vegetable Crops to develop new varieties of peppers resistant to tobacco mosaic virus

1969

Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) developed to reach lowincome families

1970

Extension programs begin to take an international perspective, reflecting concerns about world food supply

Programs established in community development, farm personnel management, integrated pest management (IPM) and marine fisheries

1971

Extension farm advisors, specialists and Agriculture Experiment Station faculty boost Central Coast production by conducting mechanical harvesting trials for Ventura County citrus, demonstrating chemical inhibition of avocado top regrowth and assessing lettuce response to soil fumigation for nematode control

1972

UC conducts drip irrigation experiments on San Diego County avocados

1973

In response to environmental concerns, UC works with Santa Clara County's canning industry on using cannery wastes as soil amendment

1974

UC changes name of Agriculture Extension Service to UC Cooperative Extension (UCCE) to reflect its broadening social and economic purview

UC explores impacts of significant air pollution on Southern California leafy vegetables and on San Joaquin Valley cotton production

1976

UC research indicates that EFNEP improves dietary practices of low-income populations

1977

UC Small Farm Program established to focus on specialized needs of small-scale and limited-resource growers

1979

UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program formed to accelerate research and education on production alternatives that use fewer chemicals

1980

From 600 pages of oral history gathered by UC researchers, UCCE studies how technology has changed farms and farm families

UC announces the release of six new strawberry varieties

1981

UC survey of agricultural college graduates shows women have not yet broken barriers in employment, salaries and status in agriculture

UC hires its first affirmative action officer to encourage more women and minorities to seek careers in CE

1982

Peripheral Canal referendum fails; UCCE praised for providing objective water policy information to public

1986

UC begins two environmentally oriented programs: Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, to help California growers practice sustainable production and marketing systems; and Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program, to study problems facing oak trees and other hardwoods

1988

UCCE reorganized, making campus-based specialists integral part of academic departments

1989

California 4-H club members number about 76,000; more than 40% live in large cities or suburbs and 55% are girls

1990

Money Talks program developed by UCCE home economists to help low-income families improve their financial situations

1991

UCCE specialists share potential impacts of fair trade agreements on popular commodities

1992

Experts from UCCE analyze economic impact of sweet potato whitefly in Imperial Valley

1993

UCCE helps small-scale growers by providing workshops for Southeast Asian immigrant growers in Central Valley

1994

Study by UCCE scientists documents trend of growers using more sustainable farming practices

1995

With help from UCCE researchers, almond growers in Merced County reduce pesticide use

1996

UCCE begins using World Wide Web and email to conduct outreach

Spanish-language UCCE specialist begins using radio to teach nutrition to Latino families

1998

In response to dust pollution concerns, UCCE scientists collaborate to stabilize soil and reduce windblown dust in Antelope Valley

1999

UCCE team documents significant benefits from agritourism to growers and communities in San Diego and other metropolitan counties

2000

Study by UCCE researchers finds that school gardens teach children healthier eating habits

2001

UC scientists develop integrated approach to managing sudden oak death, a disease that has killed millions of oak trees

2003

To help California cheesemakers develop successful marketing strategies, UCCE studies shopping habits of specialty cheese consumers

2004

UCCE nutritional research finds link between food insecurity and obesity in Latino families

2005

Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center celebrates 40 years partnering with UCCE on research

2006

UCCE study finds decreasing size of grape harvest baskets leads to healthier farm workers and fewer back problems

2007

UCCE develops and tests IPM program for cut roses, the largest component of California's cut-flower industry

2008

Sonoma and Napa UCCE study biocontrol in vineyards as part of CE's work on making viticulture more sustainable

2009

UC ANR introduces its Strategic Vision through 2025

2010

Four UC ANR strategic initiatives established: Sustainable Food Systems, Healthy Families and Communities, Endemic and Invasive Pests and Diseases and Sustainable Natural Ecosystems

UCCE study finds Southern California nurseries adopting best practices for reducing water runoff from their facilities

2011

Strategic initiative for Water Quality, Quantity and Security established

Collaborative UCCE and UCD study on nitrate levels in groundwater released to State Water Board and governor

2012

UC ANR internal grants program funds research and extension education in new areas of biofuels and local food systems

2013

UC ANR holds Global Food Systems Forum, attracting viewers from more than 70 countries

2014

UCCE celebrates 100 years of bringing science and service to California communities

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California milestones

Rose M. Hayden-Smith, Rachel A. Surls, Marissa Palin Stein
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu

California milestones

Share using any of the popular social networks Share by sending an email Print article
Share using any of the popular social networks Share by sending an email Print article

Authors

Rachel A. Surls, UCCE
Marissa Palin Stein, UC ANR

Publication Information

California Agriculture 68(1):8-15. https://doi.org/10.3733/ca.v068n01p8a

Published online January 01, 2014

PDF  |  Citation  |  Permissions  |  Cited by 0 articles

NALT Keywords

Author Affiliations show

Full text

1862

President Lincoln signs Morrill Act, authorizing development of agricultural “land-grant” colleges in each state

1868

University of California founded to teach “agriculture, mining and the mechanical arts”

1887

Hatch Act establishes federal funding for agricultural research in state land-grant colleges

1912

UC agricultural clubs formed in Ferndale and Fortuna; these early clubs evolved into today's 4-H program

1913

Andrew Hansen Christiansen named California's first Extension farm advisor, placed in Humboldt County

1914

Congress passes the Smith-Lever Act, making federal funds available for extension work

1915

UC Agricultural Extension Service (later renamed “Cooperative Extension”) appoints farm advisors in Glenn, Solano, Stanislaus and Placer counties

1917

Emergency war appropriations provide growth for UC Agricultural Extension as “food for victory” becomes national priority

1918

First UC Extension specialist, a poultryman, hired with goal to double egg production from 80 eggs per hen per year average

1919

B.H. Crocheron recruited to direct state's Agricultural Extension Service, which he does for next 35 years

1920

Crocheron establishes week-long traveling conferences where caravans of farm advisors and Farm Bureau representatives travel for hundreds of miles viewing selected farms.

Farm Bureau centers established in more than 500 rural communities

1921

Volunteer leader concept implemented for high school boys' and girls' agricultural clubs organized by farm advisors, forming the basic structure and philosophy for today's 4-H Youth Development Program

1922

Growers begin acquiring tractors; UC Extension holds one-week schools in 12 counties teaching growers how to adjust and repair their new machinery

1923

Extension completes first decade with 40 farm advisors, 33 assistant farm advisors and 21 home demonstration agents in county offices

1924

Extension workers help bring an outbreak of foot and mouth disease under control

1925

Hilgardia, a monographic series of agricultural science, begins

1926

First Agricultural Extension circulars published

1927

Extension academics begin specializing in poultry, dairy, citrus, walnuts, agricultural engineering, etc.

1928

“4-H” appears for the first time in California reports on youth work

1929

Extension provides emergency assistance when St. Francis Dam break inundates portions of Ventura and Los Angeles counties

Extension Director Crocheron embarks on fact-finding tour in Asia to investigate potential markets for California specialty crops; his outlook is not optimistic

1930

Focus turns to practical application of science to agriculture, with progress on soil fertility and new dusts and sprays to control crop diseases

1932

“Cal-Approved” seed program begins to ensure quality seed for standard and improved varieties

1934

Extension tapped to help federal government implement and administer Agricultural Adjustment Administration programs to help growers stabilize their incomes

Severe drought hits California: 18 California counties declared emergency areas eligible for federal funds; farm advisors serve as government agents in purchasing livestock in the hardest-hit areas

1935

With encouragement from a UC Extension forestry specialist, 2,000 miles of windbreak planted to effectively protect Southern California citrus districts

1936

Congress approves Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act to conserve soil and prevent erosion; Extension agents given responsibility of carrying out organizing work

1937

George B. Alcorn joins Extension as agricultural economist; he will become third director of California Agricultural Extension Service in 1956

1938

Federal-state agreements establish pilot land-use planning program in U.S. counties; UC Extension monitors programs in Riverside, Kern, Sonoma and Yuba counties

1940

Farm advisors and home demonstration agents lead wartime committees, conduct war bond campaigns and organize state militia that recruits more than 23,000 volunteers

1941

Victory gardens and rural fire protection become important Extension topics

1942

In response to Pearl Harbor, Extension agents organize Emergency Farm Fire Protection Project, forming more than 2,000 volunteer fire companies in 42 counties to thwart possible incendiary attacks

Director Crocheron organizes California Minute Men rural militia; 20,000 men sign up through county Extension offices to serve on reserve duty

1943

Extension asked to administer Emergency Farm Labor Project to assure adequate supply of workers for wartime agricultural production

1945

In response to newly formed Forest Service grazing restrictions, Extension advisors help ranchers determine most efficient locations and methods to feed cattle

1946

Sixty new Extension appointments made

California Agriculture journal begins publishing

1947

Seventy-eight new Extension agents hired

1948

Extension Director Crocheron dies suddenly, ending an era; acting director Chester Rubel writes “… a deep understanding of rural problems, a genius for organization, and a devotion to agriculture and to rural people … made [Crocheron] an outstanding leader…. The foundations which he laid are sound and enduring … His work will go on.”

1950

Extension reorganizes to better cope with scientific and technical advances and with California's rapidly increasing population; home demonstration agents become home advisors; county director positions created to coordinate local farm and home advisor programs

New specialist positions added in range management, ornamental horticulture, subtropical horticulture, plant pathology, vegetable crops, deciduous fruits and nuts, agricultural engineering, marketing, extension education, 4-H, home economics, youth counseling, apiculture, biometrics, climatology, crops processing, forest products, nematology, parasitology, enology, pesticide safety, consumer marketing, wildlife management, public affairs, radio-TV, dairy products and soil and water salinity

1953

Extension researchers study air pollution damage to various crops in Los Angeles Basin and San Francisco Bay Area

1954

UC Extension specialists coordinate with USDA to develop new shade structures for livestock in hot weather

1955

Extension staff totals 549, more than double 1940's Extension workers

1956

UC Davis scientists and Extension farm advisors develop tomato varieties around state, identifying three new hybrids with superior yields

1957

Extension farm advisors work on improving irrigation efficiency by applying water based on specific soils and crop needs

1958

UC Extension entomologists release guidelines for growers on minimizing effects of pesticides on bees

1959

Extension agricultural economists study challenges and opportunities in California's rural-urban transition

1960

Extension efforts on advancing production agriculture improve farm productivity and mechanization

Home economics program reorganized as Family and Consumer Sciences

4-H programs developed in urban, low-income areas

1961

UC's pioneering biocontrol efforts well under way; scientists release imported parasitic wasps to combat specific citrus pests

1962

Experiment Station researchers and specialists study how to protect state's redwood trees from soil compaction and other damage from recreation, logging and development

1963

Farm advisors work with rice growers in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, San Joaquin, Sacramento, Sutter, Yolo and Yuba counties on fertilizer efficiency

1964

50th anniversary of Smith-Lever Act; UC Extension has 532 farm and home advisors and specialists in 50 subject areas

1965

Extension irrigation specialist and Sacramento County farm advisor encourage nurseries to use plastic tubes with electric timer to irrigate containers, rather than overhead sprinklers

1966

Extension entomologists and Fresno County farm advisors study impact of insecticides on beneficial insects in cotton fields, part of UC's work on pest control methods that utilize beneficial insects, mites and spiders

1967

Extension farm advisors work with UCD's Department of Vegetable Crops to develop new varieties of peppers resistant to tobacco mosaic virus

1969

Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) developed to reach lowincome families

1970

Extension programs begin to take an international perspective, reflecting concerns about world food supply

Programs established in community development, farm personnel management, integrated pest management (IPM) and marine fisheries

1971

Extension farm advisors, specialists and Agriculture Experiment Station faculty boost Central Coast production by conducting mechanical harvesting trials for Ventura County citrus, demonstrating chemical inhibition of avocado top regrowth and assessing lettuce response to soil fumigation for nematode control

1972

UC conducts drip irrigation experiments on San Diego County avocados

1973

In response to environmental concerns, UC works with Santa Clara County's canning industry on using cannery wastes as soil amendment

1974

UC changes name of Agriculture Extension Service to UC Cooperative Extension (UCCE) to reflect its broadening social and economic purview

UC explores impacts of significant air pollution on Southern California leafy vegetables and on San Joaquin Valley cotton production

1976

UC research indicates that EFNEP improves dietary practices of low-income populations

1977

UC Small Farm Program established to focus on specialized needs of small-scale and limited-resource growers

1979

UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program formed to accelerate research and education on production alternatives that use fewer chemicals

1980

From 600 pages of oral history gathered by UC researchers, UCCE studies how technology has changed farms and farm families

UC announces the release of six new strawberry varieties

1981

UC survey of agricultural college graduates shows women have not yet broken barriers in employment, salaries and status in agriculture

UC hires its first affirmative action officer to encourage more women and minorities to seek careers in CE

1982

Peripheral Canal referendum fails; UCCE praised for providing objective water policy information to public

1986

UC begins two environmentally oriented programs: Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, to help California growers practice sustainable production and marketing systems; and Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program, to study problems facing oak trees and other hardwoods

1988

UCCE reorganized, making campus-based specialists integral part of academic departments

1989

California 4-H club members number about 76,000; more than 40% live in large cities or suburbs and 55% are girls

1990

Money Talks program developed by UCCE home economists to help low-income families improve their financial situations

1991

UCCE specialists share potential impacts of fair trade agreements on popular commodities

1992

Experts from UCCE analyze economic impact of sweet potato whitefly in Imperial Valley

1993

UCCE helps small-scale growers by providing workshops for Southeast Asian immigrant growers in Central Valley

1994

Study by UCCE scientists documents trend of growers using more sustainable farming practices

1995

With help from UCCE researchers, almond growers in Merced County reduce pesticide use

1996

UCCE begins using World Wide Web and email to conduct outreach

Spanish-language UCCE specialist begins using radio to teach nutrition to Latino families

1998

In response to dust pollution concerns, UCCE scientists collaborate to stabilize soil and reduce windblown dust in Antelope Valley

1999

UCCE team documents significant benefits from agritourism to growers and communities in San Diego and other metropolitan counties

2000

Study by UCCE researchers finds that school gardens teach children healthier eating habits

2001

UC scientists develop integrated approach to managing sudden oak death, a disease that has killed millions of oak trees

2003

To help California cheesemakers develop successful marketing strategies, UCCE studies shopping habits of specialty cheese consumers

2004

UCCE nutritional research finds link between food insecurity and obesity in Latino families

2005

Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center celebrates 40 years partnering with UCCE on research

2006

UCCE study finds decreasing size of grape harvest baskets leads to healthier farm workers and fewer back problems

2007

UCCE develops and tests IPM program for cut roses, the largest component of California's cut-flower industry

2008

Sonoma and Napa UCCE study biocontrol in vineyards as part of CE's work on making viticulture more sustainable

2009

UC ANR introduces its Strategic Vision through 2025

2010

Four UC ANR strategic initiatives established: Sustainable Food Systems, Healthy Families and Communities, Endemic and Invasive Pests and Diseases and Sustainable Natural Ecosystems

UCCE study finds Southern California nurseries adopting best practices for reducing water runoff from their facilities

2011

Strategic initiative for Water Quality, Quantity and Security established

Collaborative UCCE and UCD study on nitrate levels in groundwater released to State Water Board and governor

2012

UC ANR internal grants program funds research and extension education in new areas of biofuels and local food systems

2013

UC ANR holds Global Food Systems Forum, attracting viewers from more than 70 countries

2014

UCCE celebrates 100 years of bringing science and service to California communities

Return to top


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Email: calag@ucanr.edu | Phone: (530) 750-1223 | Fax: (510) 665-3427
Website: http://calag.ucanr.edu